Wednesday, August 15, 2018

HP4 Historical Place Bruny Island - Whales - Charles Dowdell

Places of Interest

Jillett/Bradshaw Family

Bruny Island and Whaling

Charles Dowdell

Without a doubt the one piece of research that astounded both myself and my fellow researcher, Sue Collins,  when the Jillett Family website was being prepared, was the story of Charles Dowdell.
It all began by a google search on the ship "Dragon".  At the time, I was trying to find what had happened to him.  He simply vanished off the face of the earth.  As he was involved with whaling, it occurred that perhaps his ship had been sunk.  A google search found a story from a lady in Europe whose family member was part of the crew.  Like the good researcher I was, I forgot to print off what I had found, and then when I went to find it again, it was lost in cyber-space.

To ensure that I was on the correct path, I sought some assistance with Dr Paul Moon, a New Zealand  expert on the practices of the Maoris in that period.  He assured me that what I thought had happened would not have occurred.  He also told me if it did, it would be printed in the Sydney newspaper.

And it was.  But it took us weeks and weeks of reading every story ever printed with the word dragon in it.  Suffice to say, the crew were cannibalised and the ship burnt.  Dr Moon was equally surprised.
The Dragon left Tasmania on January 7th 1832, bound for New Zealand.   Then it vanished.
There were no newspaper reports concerning the loss of the Dragon. Ship losses seemed to be a given, as per the following account in 1831. 

The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842) Saturday 26 February 1831

The ship the Dragon, under the same Captain Rattenbury, as was involved in the article from 1831, was the master.  The ship left on 4th January 1832.

More than 12 months later, there was a sad report in the newspapers. 

A letter has been received in Hobart Town, dated on board the brig Amity, 2nd of April, when lying of Clark's Reef. The brig had 100 barrels of oil on board, and the Lindsays 370 barrels. The latter vessel had picked up in an open boat, at sea, a New Zealand lad, who had witnessed the capture, by the blacks, of the brig Dragon. He states the vessel was burnt, and all the crew were put to death and afterwards eaten. The attack first commenced when the crew of the whaler had made fast to a fish, and had run it into a small inlet where the numbers of the natives soon overpowered them, and the disastrous sequel too easily was effected.
Colonial Times 25th May 1833

The Hobart Town Chronicle (Tas. : 1833) Tuesday 28 May 1833 p 2
It was said the story was too gruesome, which it was.
But mention of it was made in June 1833, in reference to the sad state of Capt Rattenbury's family.
Hobart Town Chronicle (Tas. : 1833), Tuesday 4 June 1833, page 3

The proverbial sympathy and benevolence to be pointed out to insure their contributions. The instance, indeed, we are about to bring before their notice is one of unparalleled misfortune. The reader will recollect the ship Waterloo which touched at this port some years ago, when the master died on board in the harbour. Capt. Rattenbury, the chief officer, then succeeded to the command of the vessel which afterwards suffered shipwreck. On arriving in London Capt. Rattenbury made an engagement with Mr. Bethune to navigate the ship George, which was to be entered as a colonial vessel and to be engaged in the sperm fishery.

Agreeably to this intention, the vessel was fitted out and the unfortunate catastrophe that overtook Capt. Rattenbury and his crew in the total loss of the shin will be but too well remembered by many
After innumerable hardships Capt. Rattenburv at last found his way to Hobart town. Being then entirely out of employment or the means of providing for himself and family he would have fallen into absolute destitution had not Mr.MacLachlan engaged him to the command of the Dragon which he fitted out expressly for the sperm fishery.

The awful termination of this expedition in the seizure of the ship and massacre of every soul on board with the exception of a New Zealand boy, by the savages of one of the Solomon islands already communicated to our readers, Mrs. Rattenbury is in consequence in addition to-the weight of the dreadful, calamity , deprived of every means of support, unless her fellow townsmen contribute something to alleviate her distress.

 For this purpose Mr. Kemp and Mr. Maclachlan have kindly volunteered to receive subscriptions for the afflicted widow, and we are sure will besides generously set the example by contributing handsomely in the first instance themselves.
Then his only child died  in 1834.

Some interesting facts about the ships and whaling can be found at

Crew of Dragon  

Atkinson  William     2nd Mate  Dragon  4 Jan 1832  Hobart  New Zealand    
Barlow                         Crew - boy Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Brown Manuel            Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Butterworth William Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Clements George        Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Cuthbert John            Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Dowdell Charles       Mate Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Francis George         Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Garraty Charles        Crew - boy Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Gifford George          Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Harwood Arthur       Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Hog John                    Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Hosie James              Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Johnston Gabriel     Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Jukes William           Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Mayberry William   Boatsteerer Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Nash John                  Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Rattenbury John       Crew - boy Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Rattenbury Samsom William Mr Master        Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand
Renny Robert            Seaman Dragon 4 Jan 1832 Hobart New Zealand

Charles Dowdell was born in Sydney, the son of a fisherman, and he was involved in the shipping industry.

Life on Bruni Island

Captain Lawrence lived on Brunie Island. 
One of the most fascinating sites on the north of the island is St Peter's church, the first church built south of Hobart.  It was designed by the Anglican bishop of Tasmania at the time, Francis Nixon, and constructed in the 1840s by local resident William Lawrence.   "He had the convicts, the workforce and the materials," said Suzanne Smythe, manager of the Variety Bay Historic Site and tour guide.
St Peter's was built about 1.5 kilometres from the pilot station at Variety Bay which was then home to Lawrence and his wife.  Ms Smythe tour guide, said the church was most likely initiated due to the friendship between Lawrence and Nixon, and would have cost Lawrence very little to construct.
"He really didn't pay for anything," she said. "His wife did the decorating and he even had a timber pit to do the pews."
Ms Smythe said the church was officiated by a visiting minister at specific times of the year and for special religious ceremonies.  "[Lawrence] was very concerned for the moral wellbeing for the people of Bruny Island," Ms Smythe said.   In its heyday, St Peter's performed weddings, baptisms and funerals.  Overlooking the water, it appears to be in an oddly isolated place for a busy church.  "What people forget is worshippers came by water," Ms Smythe said.
Horse and cart was another method of travel for many on the island, while some locals walked to church and back for lack of other options.  For nearly 50 years St Peter's served the population of Bruny Island until it was replaced by a church at Barnes Bay.
It is uncertain why St Peter's was abandoned but local legend suggests it was destroyed by a bushfire in 1892.  Ms Smythe said the most likely reason, however, was due to disuse and the fact St Peter's was so far off the beaten track.    The church is now in ruins, with most of the damage attributed to time and neglect.
[1]But some damage has been done by the locals.   There was a rumour surrounding churches that they were built with sovereigns buried in the corner foundations.  To test this tale it is said some locals dynamited one corner of the church only to discover no such monetary windfall existed.

Work has been done to stabilise the remains of the building to prevent any further damage to a unique and little known aspect of Tasmanian history.
Both William[2] and Susannah are buried at the Barnes Bay Cemetery on Bruni Island.  Without a doubt a visit to Bruni Island and a trip to the Southern Ocean is a "Bucket List Must Do".

Courier (Hobart, Tas. : 1840 - 1859), Saturday 18 July 1846, page 2
We should do an injustice to our readers and to the friends of the Lord Bishop of Tasmania, were we not to give some short account of the circumstances of his final departure from his Diocese, which took place at 3 o'clock on Wednesday morning. The Arequipa left her moorings at half-past 8 A.M. on Tuesday, and proceeded with a fair light wind down the river until mid-day, when it fell calm, and His Lordship was invited by the pilot Mr. Lawrence, to proceed in boats with his party to the pilot station, a few miles lower down, for the purpose of laying the foundation stone of the Church on Bruni Island, to the history of which His Lordship alluded on a late public occasion.
Upon landing, His Lordship inquired for the Missionary Chaplain of the Bruni Disrict, whose head-quarters are usually fixed at this pilot station, but was disappointed to learn that he was absent in a part of the district too distant for timely notice. "My Lord," said the pilot, "I have asked him why he need be knocking about at this season of the year, when he might as well be quiet at home till the weather improves ; but he asked me what I should think of a pilot who, when a ship was coming in, would not go out to bring her up till the weather mended." The afternoon was far spent before all the preparations were completed, and the party assembled at the spot chosen as the site on the dividing range of Bruni Island, with the sea on both sides in full view.

When the Bishop, accompanied by the Arch-deacon, and three of the clergy in attendance, arrived at the site, the assembled people joined in singing the hundredth psalm, after which His Lordship read certain suitable sentences of Holy Writ and an exhortation. Prayer succeeded, in which all joined with much devotion, and then the foundation stone was laid by the Bishop himself, assisted by Mr. Lawrence, the founder of the Church, which is named St. Peter's. At this part of the proceedings another hymn was sung, and an act of solemn thanksgiving made by the Bishop and all the people. A few words, more especially suggested by the occasion, were then added by His Lord-ship, who appeared to survey with peculiar interest and affection the little flock assembled for prayer and praise in a spot where these sounds were now first heard since the beginning of time.
 When he had delivered his address, he let them depart with his blessing, the last he pronounced upon these shores. The concluding hour of daylight thus spent, seemed an appropriate conclusion to his episcopal career for the present, and could not but leave an impression upon his mind, which will contribute to alleviate the anxieties and pangs of departure.
 Indeed, we are truly glad to understand that the events of the last few days, and the interest which all classes have shown in his welfare, have exercised a most con-genial influence upon a mind which is perhaps too much alive to the responsibilities incident to the episcopal office, and too easily cast down by its anxieties.
 He goes from among us with the prayers and good wishes of all true-hearted colonists, and we trust that years to come will once more see him at his post, maintaining as resolutely as ever all that is right in sentiment and sound in feeling among the people of this colony.
Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Wednesday 31 March 1954, page 20
OLD CHURCH MAY DRAW TOURISTS  BRUNY ISLAND has an historic church, built by convict labour 108 years ago, which could be-come a great asset when tourists flock to the island with the advent soon of the vehicular ferry service.
However, although the ruins could remain as such and have an appeal similar to those which attract thousands of tourists to Port Arthur, residents claim that the work of restoring the old building would be worthwhile.
The old shell, on rising ground surrounded by bush and scrub, stands at Variety Bay. Named because of the variety of scenery it offers, the bay could become one of the island's greatest tourist attractions.
Beautifully designed and sturdily built by convicts, thousands of whose hand-made bricks are stacked at a nearby kiln, most of the framework of the old church remains intact, but the roof and part of one wall are heaps of rubble.
The church was built in 1846 by K. M. Stewart for Capt. Lawrence, and the stone bearing this inscription is among the mass of collapsed brick work within the interior, of the building. The church was the first to be built on Bruny, and the first service was held in it in 1847, during the convict days.
The church and brick kiln could be made easily accessible. A representative, of "The Mercury," who recently visited the big muttonbird rookery on Cape Frederick Henry, reached the place in a touring car with a high undercarriage clearance.

Bruni Island
In 1902, an historical account of Bruni Island was printed in the newspapers
Barnes Bay   -  How or when Barnes Bay on of North Bruny's most important and best known inlets first received its name, does not appear to be known.  An old pruner by the name of Barnes visited the place some years ago, and in talking about Bruny Island, referred to Barnes Bay as having been so called after his father, who was the first with man or one of the first white men to settle there.  Be that as it may, it is certain that it was called so as far back as 1829, because the black station was recommended by Robinson to be shifted from the little cove on the western and inner side of Bruny Island, to there in that year.  As Bonwick state:-
"The locality of the depot (the little cove above-mentioned) did not furnish sufficient means for the location of his charge and the superintendent (George Augustus Robinson) represented the necessity of removal to Barns' Bay
Again, in Martin Cash's personal narrative of his exploits as a bushranger, in 1843-4, etc, we find this interesting record.
"Being obliged to remain in Hobart Town for six weeks, in consequence of bad weather, at the end of that time we packed up our things and started for the Huon, stopping for a few days at Mr. Llyod's at the Snug whose property joined a farm occupied by a Mr Phillip Dennehee, who was a very recent importation from the Emerald Isle, and at that time luxuriating in the bark edifice some two hundred yards from Mr. Lloyd's.  the latter gentleman, having informed me that I might likely get employment from Mr Mitchelmore, who with his two sons, was then building a craft opposite Barnes' Bay.  I started early in the morning....."  That was in 1837.
Old Anglican Church
Perhaps the most historic ruin on North Bruny Island is the old Anglican Church built by Captain Lawrence in 1846, only the brick walls of which remain to mark the first church erected on Bruny Island.  A photo of this historic ruin appeared in the "Weekly Courier" (Launceston) issue of December 23, 1915.
Roberts Point
Robert's Point, North Bruny, in the vicinity of which the steamer Huon foundered on April 3, 1914, resulting in three passengers being drowned, derived its title from a Mr Roberts, who had sale works there in 1829.
Nebraski Beach
Concerning this North Bruny beach, a write remarks:-
"There is a magnificent beach on the Channel shore, just below Denne's Point, some two miles long, and at certain tides, 70 yards wide3, and, by the way, there is a romance attached to this very beach, for it is said that when the ship Hope was wrecked, in the early days, near the Derwent lighthouse, the cash brought out from England to pay the garrison, and amounting to several thousands of pounds, was brought in a small boat to this spot, and buried, for the time being, in the sand.  However, it has never been recovered, though the beach has been literally torn to pieces, from end to end by treasure-seekers, for the last thirty years."

North Bruny
Thus "Cradoc' in the "Weekly Courier" (Launceston) of June 11, 1914:-
"Driving along the road (leading to Denne's Point) the scenic grandeur of the coastline reveals itself at intervals.  Waterview was passed, once the home of the Hayle family.  Mrs. Hayle was a daughter of Captain Kelly, whose name is intimately associated with the early days of Bruny Island, and with coastal survey work in Tasmania.  Kelly Basin, on the west coast was named after this intrepid pioneer.  Bull Bay, a most picturesque locality, was a much frequented spot in the long ago.  On the shores, the Messrs. Young, who are grandsons of the late Captain Lawrence, have properties.
Denne's Point
"After a most enjoyable drive we arrived at Denne's Point.... On this historic point is the residence of Mr Harry Denne, a gentleman whose name is intimately connected with yachting in Tasmanian waters..The Dennes have been connected with Bruny Island for generations.  Captain Kelly first took up land at the point; then the late Messrs. Darcy Denne and Harry Denne purchased it from him between 70 and 80 years ago.  Subsequently the estate passed to Mr John Denne, and now Mr Harry Denne is in possession."  Mr Harry Denne has since disposed of the property to Mr. W. R. M. Corney.
Captain Kelly
From "The History of Tasmania" page 31 - "No one but the harbourmaster (William Collins) and a pilot was allowed to board any vessel arriving on the river (Derwent) and these drastic orders remained in force until the year 1813.  On arrival at the north part of Bruny, the farms of Mr Kelly, the pilot peeped out, beautifully sloping down to the water's edge.  Kelly was in the habit of boarding the ships as pilot and bringing with him for sale a basket containing eggs, vegetables, fruit and milk.  He was a big burly man, who mounted the vessel's side with difficulty and was scanty and short of breath; so much so that he laboured like a frigate before he could cry, "Square the yards"

Stanton home of the Shones, raided by Martin Cash bushranger.jpg Cash spent some time holed up on Bruni Island.  A few years later, and he had held up, in his front room of his house in New Norfolk, Thomas Shone and his family and  their neighbour, James Bradshaw.  James was tied up and made to sit on the floor.  James's property bordered Thomas Shones.  Thomas Shone was the father of Mary Ann Shone who married Thomas Jillett.
Exerpt of the deposition of Thomas Shone
That, about four months since, three desperate characters, named Cash, Jones, and Kavenagh, escaped from Port Arthur, and forthwith commenced plundering, in a most systematical manner, the settlers in the districts of Brighton and New Norfolk, not unfrequently by drafts huddling together into one room from five to twenty persons, whom they have usually bound, and threatened with immediate death if the least resistance should be made; that armed bodies of free and convict constables have been used to pursuit of these men: that, on one occasion, five armed constables were stationed to protect an inn called "The Woolpack," which the three bushrangers daringly gave notice that they intended to attack: and that, nevertheless, these desperate men did attack the inn, and bound the inmates together, and then fired upon the armed constables, who hurriedly returned the fire, when one of the bushrangers was seen by a constable to drop, from a bullet he received; yet with the advantage of five to two, the armed constables almost immediately ran way, when one received a wound in the back, and another a wound in the fleshy part of the leg.
The Bruny Island Quarantine Station was built near Barnes Bay in the mid 1880s.  With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the quarantine station was used for containing more than diseases. It was built to protect Tasmania from diseases, became a place to "protect" the state from the Germans during World War I, and yet many people have never heard of it
A German ship, the SS Oberhausen, just happened to be moored at Port Huon in southern Tasmania when war was declared.    
 Housed in the Bruni Island Historical Bligh Museum are pages and pages of notes on the families. 

From whaling to agriculture, the Island has changed.  Cheese and cherries, huge ones, and fast boats replace the harpoons and whale pots of the past, not forgetting the Neck, penguins, dolphins, scenery, wines and seafood! 

Capt and Mrs Lawrence celebrated their golden wedding in 1878.  The menu looks very tasty!


Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Saturday 5 July 1924, page 57

NOWADAYS the name of Sunny Tasmania is generally associated with apples and pears and memories of enjoyable holidays, but there was a time, not so very many years ago, when to mention Tasmania was to think of not apples, but whales. In years gone by the whaling industry was the mainstay of Tasmanian commercial prosperity, but it is has long since been dead. Early last century, when whaling was at its height, it was commenced in Tasmanian waters by vessels from England and New South Wales.
At first whales were very numerous around the coast and in the many bays and inlets, and these were attacked from shore whaling stations for the most part, although several small brigs and vessels of that kind were engaged in the trade. This coast whaling was known as bay whaling, and was very prosperous for many years. The first vessels fitted out as bay whalers from Hobart Town (as Hobart was known in those days) were two small brigs, owned respectively by Captain Fane and an American negro of the name of Hazard. These two vessels worked the waters of Frederick Henry Bay, a few miles from the port, but teeming with whales.
The first shore whaling station was established about the year 1836 at Droughty Point, in the Derwent, and shortly afterwards stations were established at Tinder Box Bay, Trumpeter and Adventure Bays, on the eastern shore of Bruny Island, and at Southport and Recherche Bay at the mouth of D'Entrecastea'ux Channel. Whales were exceedingly plentiful, the business prospered greatly, and many residents were induced to risk their capital in the prosecution of this exciting business.
Whaling stations were established on the East Coast at Lagoon, Blackman, Oyster, and Spring Bays, at Maria and Schouten Islands, as far north as Eddy-stone Point and south as far as Recherche Bay,in the neighbourhood of the Witches. Naturally the industry found great favour in the eyes of the young manhood of Tasmania, because of its exciting and perilous adventure and its appeal to the sporting and hunting instincts of man. One of the earliest - perhaps the very earliest - of Tasmanian headsmen was Mr: James Foley, who was killed near Brown's River in an encounter with a stray whale (probably a fighting bull) after the regular season was over. His death was witnessed by his wife, who, powerless to aid, was watching from the shore close by. Captain James Kelly, who was appointed harbourmaster and pilot at Hobart in 1819, Captain Fane, Sherbett, and W Young were among the earliest Tasmanian headsmen, and were famed far and wide for their daring, their many thrilling adventures and their success.
When this industry of bay whaling was at its height the usually quiet and placid waters of the bays and estuaries where stations were established often presented wonderfully animated scenes of racing whale boats, fighting whales, and daring men. Competition in the capture of whales was very keen. It is on record that many as 21 whale boats have started in chase at the one time from the look-out at Recherche Bay. Twenty-four whales were secured one winter by a single boat. For each whale taken a notch was cut in the loggerhead of the boat, and of these notches the headsmen and their crews were as proud as Indian warriors of their scalps. It is recorded that Messrs. McLachlan and Young secured 800 tuns of oil and a proportionate quantity of bone in one season. As many as four whales have been captured by one boat in a single day.
The constant harassing and destruction of the whales, and the killing of the calves, had the effect of either exterminating them or causing them to leave Tasmania's shores, for by 1843 their numbers had declined greatly, and in 1847 bay whaling may be said to have died out.
Mr. G. Watson, it is believed, was the last who fitted out a shore party. Captain Kelly, Dr. Imlay, Messrs. Kerr, Alexander and Co., Petchy, Johnston, Gardiner, and G. Watson were the most prominent of the bay whaling owners. This important industry gave employment during the winter months to a great number of men who in the summer were engaged in agricultural and other pursuits.
After the rise and fall of bay whaling and the extermination or driving away of the black whales, ships were fitted out to prosecute sperm whaling. Just before the discovery of gold the Tasmanian fleet numbered 40 sailing ships, carrying 200 boats, casks for 2,000 tons of oil, and crews numbering in the aggregate 1,000 men. Great success attended the industry, and many splendid voyages were made.
One of the best cargoes in the shortest time was that secured by the whaler Grecian when she was under the command of one of Hobart's most noted whalers, Captain John Watson. In three days 39 tons of oil were secured - a fabulous quantity in those times.
Besides being the home port of so large a fleet of whalers, Hobart was also a great station for the refitting of whaling ships of foreign nationalities. On Good Friday, 1847, there were no fewer than 37 foreign whalers refit-ting at Hobart. The discovery of gold in 1851 had the effect of dispersing the Hobart fleet, but the industry was resuscitated in 1862, in which year the whalers belonging to this port numbered 25. The low price of oil and bad voyages brought about the failure of one of the largest owners and the withdrawal into the merchant service of several other ships belonging to different owners reduced the number of whalers to five. Towards the seventies the increasing value of sperm whale oil caused other vessels to be fitted out, and the fleet then numbered eight. The introduction of mineral oils was a primary factor in the decadence of the industry.
In the nineties the barque Waterwitch, which had been many years in the whaling trade, was withdrawn and broken up. In 1894 the barque Helen was fitted out as a four-boat ship, and made several voyages with varying success until 1900, when she was withdrawn into the merchant service. She was the last of the old whalers in Australasian waters. In 1899 Captain Folder, who was in command of the Helen, discovered the haunt of the black whale at Campbell Island, but the want of steam power and appliances greatly militated against success.
The barque Helen, the last of the old Whaling Fleet, landing a cargo of 102 tons of sperm and black oil-a record for the old whaling days-at Hobart Wharf.
Williamson photo.
It may be mentioned that for many years the whale oil was shipped to England in casks made of English oak, but Mr. Archibald Johnston, father of a well-known Hobart Bench Clerk (now dead), successfully introduced Tasmanian blackwood staves for the casks, and thenceforward the receptacles were made exclusively of this wood. The value of black and sperm whale oil shipped from Hobart since 1840 is estimated at about two-and-a-half million pounds sterling. In an old publication it is recorded that in 1820 it was positively dangerous to cross from Hobart to Kangaroo Point (now Bellerive) owing to the numerous whales in the Derwent.
Up to the beginning of the thirties comparatively little had been done in whaling from Hobart Town. A whaler known as the Clarence, which was owned jointly by several merchants, had made one good voyage, and the Deveron, owned by Mr. W. Wilson, was in 1828 being fitted out for the same employment. Sperm oil at that time fetched a high price in the English market. Consignments sent to England, if accompanied by a certificate guaranteeing the oil to have been secured by British vessels, were charged only 1s. per ton import duty, as against £26 12s. charged on American oil.
According to the "Colonial Times" the Caroline was the first deep-sea whaler equipped from Hobart for the sperm fishery. The following is an extract from that paper, dated Hobart, January 9, 1829:-
Sailed on Sunday last (January 4), the brig Caroline, Captain Smith, belonging to John Lord, Esq., for the sperm fishery, this being the first vessel which has ever been equipped out of this port for the sperm fishery, a salute of 15 guns was fired by the Caroline on her departure. We trust the enterprise of Mr. Lord upon this occasion will be an inducement to other merchants to fit out vessels for the sperm fishery.
Thus commenced the Tasmanian whaling industry, which was destined to prosper and flourish and rise to so great heights only to collapse and sink into oblivion as the years rolled on. But there is yet another chapter to add before the story of whaling as connected with Tasmania is brought to a close. Twice since 1900 Hobart has been visited by whalers, but not by old whalers of the type which used to be so well-known here. In 1913 the Norwegian whaling ship Mimosa, with the steam whaler Tasmania, called at Hobart on a whaling cruise of the Southern Ocean, during which she cruised around part of Tasmania's shores, the Tasman Sea, the south of New Zealand, and Campbell Island.
She was very different from the well-known old whalers, Helen and Waterwitch. Again, last year, the port of Hobart was privileged to see the gathering together and setting out for the unknown of the greatest and most dangerous whaling expedition ever organised in the history of the world, comprising the Norwegian steamer, Sir James Clark Ross and the five small steam whalers, Stars I., II.,III., IV., and V. - an expedition destined to be-come famous in the eyes of the world. How infinitely different are the modern whaling fleets of to-day, with their guns and their little steamers and their wonderful mechanical appliances for the rapid rendering of oil, from the clean-lined, wooden-hulled old sailing ships of yesterday!
Through the enterprise of "The Mercury" in sending a special correspondent with the expedition the stirring story of its adventures has already been fully told in its columns.
It is useless to regret, vain to wish back the old. The days of the old whaling industry are gone forever. There are men in Hobart to this day-not many of them, it is true--who served in those old whalers; men who remember the time when Hobart harbour was full of whalers flying different flags, and Prince's Wharf was stacked high with the rich casks of oil. They were indeed great days, those days of a bygone era," when swarthy ear-ringed men from Mediterranean lands mixed in the streets with fair Norsemen from the North, and all was merry with wine and song when the home-ward-bound whaler came flag-bedecked into port. They were the "good, old days," the romantic days when sailing ships were supreme upon the ocean and whaling was the life for the most adventurous of the adventurous, the hardiest of the hardy. And now they are gone forever.    A.J.V.

Colonial Times (Hobart, Tas. : 1828 - 1857), Friday 21 August 1829, page 3
The Derwent Whalers
We briefly noticed ¡n our last the great success of our Native Youths on the whale fisher. They have already taken 101 fish, and we understand that they expect to take 50 more before the season ends. Some of those fish produce twelve tons of oil-others not more than five or six ; but they will most probably average about eight tons; which would make 1,200 tons of oil.- This by the last Price Current, would average in the London market about £33, per ton, if boiled with care and not discoloured and free from foots, amounting to the enormous sum of £39,600-nearly £40,000-in wealth drawn from the ocean, by three or four small, craft built by our industrious Native Youths, without any assistance, bounties, or other encouragement ! ! ! besides the value of, the whalebone, at £170 per ton would amount to £6,000, reckoning a quarter of a ton to each fish.
We hear that Messrs. YOUNG and WALFORD purpose sending above 300 tons to London themselves, by the first vessel and getting a return in goods; by which they will have, the benefit of the highest price, and perhaps a profit upon the return cargo. We rather think it would be more prudent of them to get out money,  than to take them off their valuable branch of industry, by embarking in general commerce which requires so much judgment in the selection of goods both as to quantity and quantity. Those young men have suffered a loss of £150 this season repairing their vessel, which met some accident and foundered.
We sincerely hope Messrs. KELLY and LUCAS, and Messrs. WALFORD and YOUNG, (all natives of the Colony, will, be enabled by the profits of their fishing this season, to build vessels of a larger size next year, and try the sperm fishing, this being by far the most valuable-one or two successful seasons would realize a fortune.
 If this Colony afforded no other industry than this one, the whale and sperm fishery, it would give profitable employment to the greatest population this Colony is likely to possess for a century to come. What would not a little encouragement accomplish both in our population and industry, if the British Government removed our peculiar situation ; and granted us those Institutions to which Britons are entitled ; the want of which alone retards our growth ? We trust they will look to it, and not continue to persist in so discouraging a policy as they have hitherto pursued.
They were rewarded with their enterprise with 1250 acres of land on Bruni Island.

Colonial Times (Hobart, Tas. : 1828 - 1857), Friday 1 May 1829, page 2

A fine vessel, called the Industry, built by Mr. GRAY on the Wharf, next Captain Bell's store, for Messrs. YOUNG and WALFORD, was launched in fine style on Tuesday. It is intended, we learn, for the whale fishery, in which desirable undertaking industry must prosper.

Colonial Times (Hobart, Tas. : 1828 - 1857), Friday 19 March 1830, page 2
We are glad to see that our Colonial craft for the ensuing whale season, are already in a, forward state of preparation. Messrs. Mawle, who have entered into this promising speculation, for the first time, have already dispatched a part of their establishment to the station they have selected in Research Bay. The fine vessel now building by these gentlemen for the fishery, is expected to be completed so as to be launched into the Derwent by the middle of May. Messrs. Walford and Young. Mr. Mayaock, and Messrs. Lucas and Kelly, are also upon the alert, and it is expected that the whole' of their respective establishments will all be equipped in the best possible style, by the time the first of our valuable visitors approach the mouth of the River; and, as, considerable experience has now been had by some of the parties, we anticipate very advantageous results from their enterprise, during the ensuing season. . ,
Launceston Advertiser (Tas. : 1829 - 1846), Monday 19 April 1830, page 3
We have the greatest satisfaction to announce, that the same success by which our gallant and industrious native Youths were distinguished last year in that great source of our national wealth, the whale fishing, has again attended them. Yesterday, Messrs. Walford & Young had a trial of strength (boat race) with Messrs. Lucas &. Kelly. In the evening they bad an entertainment at Mr. Watford's house, the Turk's Head Tavern. While they were in the height of their conviviality, news Arrived that a whale had been, seen off the South Arm. Not a moment was lost. Two boats were instantly afloat nobly manned and fully equipped for action, and their activity was rewarded by the capture of a ten Ton Whale. Thus the season has commenced, by the fortunate success of our enterprising native Youths, whom we heartily congratulate on the excellent omen with which their first effort has been attended.—

 In 1831, he was listed with Bernard Walford as a publican also involved in whaling., someone stole their fat!!!

In April 1831 he transferred the license to Anthony Fox.

Tasmanian (Hobart Town, Tas. : 1827 - 1839), Saturday 15 October 1831, page 4
We regret that a typographical error of considerable importance passed unnoticed in our last number. In the article in our fifth page, headed " STAPLE EXPORTS," we stated that those industrious and enterprising Colonists, Messrs. Kelly and Lucas, conjointly with Messrs. Young and Walford, had obtained " one hundred tons" of oil. This was a mistake, it should have been " one thousand tons," and this is, we rejoice to state, a very low estimate of the result of the fishery of the above parties alone.
If to this be added, the oil obtained by Messrs. Mawle, Mr. Meredith, and the other Colonists, who have so meritoriously and so successfully for the Colony embarked in that trade, we believe we do not over-rate the produce of the season at fifteen hundred tons, being, including whalebone, an absolute addition to the capital of the Colony of FIFTY THOUSAND POUNDS! What a rich and happy Colony this would be was it not for the accursed RUM !

Tasmanian (Hobart Town, Tas. : 1827 - 1839), Saturday 15 October 1831, page 4
We regret that a typographical error of considerable importance passed unnoticed in our last number. In the article in our fifth page, headed " STAPLE EXPORTS," we stated that those industrious and enterprising Colonists, Messrs. Kelly and Lucas, conjointly with Messrs. Young and Walford, had obtained " one hundred tons" of oil. This was a mistake, it should have been " one thousand tons," and this is, we rejoice to state, a very low estimate of the result of the fishery of the above parties alone.
If to this be added, the oil obtained by Messrs. Mawle, Mr. Meredith, and the other Colonists, who have so meritoriously and so successfully for the Colony embarked in that trade, we believe we do not over-rate the produce of the season at fifteen hundred tons, being, including whalebone, an absolute addition to the capital of the Colony of FIFTY THOUSAND POUNDS! What a rich and happy Colony this would be was it not for the accursed RUM !

Of interest is a detailed report of a shipwreck, Edward Nash Spong and his  involvement.
There was a system in Queensland, whereby Mr Jordan, the Immigration Agent, visited UK to entice settlers to take up new lands in Queensland.  This shipment was wrecked. 
Ballarat Star (Vic. : 1865 - 1924), Tuesday 31 July 1866, page 4

(From the Herald 30th July.)
Since the wreck of the unfortunate steamer Admelia at Caps Northumberland, no maritime catastrophe on these coasts has created so large an amount of painful interest as that which has been attached to the lass of the immigrant ship Netherby on King's island, It was only late on last Saturday night week that the first intelligence of the wreck was brought to Melbourne, and through the great promptitude exhibited by the Government in this matter, the whole of the passengers have now been safely conveyed to these shores and comfortably housed in the Exhibition Building and Immigration Depot, where they have since become the objects of public sympathy. Nearly the whole of the immigrants have come out under the " land order system," that is, they, or other persons for them, pay their own passage money and receive orders for laud from the Queensland Government.
This system extends to all classes of the passengers, whether in the cabin or the steerage. Mr Jordan, the agent for the Queensland Government in England, does not appear to have been very happy in his selection of the immigrants to settle in the colony which he represents. Great complaints have been made as to the manner in which some of the steerage passengers conducted themselves on the voyage out, and if the statements of their fellow travellers are in any way to be relied upon, the Netherby was conveying to Queensland a number of very low-class people, and of this lot, it is said, that when the vessel first struck they were down on their knees with fear; but when the actual danger was over, they did not scruple, in the bustle and excitement which prevailed, to break open boxes and appropriate articles which did not belong to them. Although, as may readily be supposed, the people have not saved much of their personal property, still there are very few amongst their number who have not contrived to bring off something, and when the men marched from the lighthouse to the place of embarkation, at the yellow rock, the large majority of them had something in the way of effects to carry; The chief officer (Mr Jones) has lost his all, money included, to that, really public sympathy in his case would be .veil bestowed. At the time of the accident he was engaged at his duties, and therefore, unlike the passengers, had no time to look after his worldly goods. With the large subscription which has been already raised, and the quantity of clothing which has been collected (or the passengers, the great proportion of the immigrants will, when the distribution comes to be made, find themselves better off than if they had proceeded on their voyage without coming to these shores.
They have been feasted with all sorts of good things sent in by way of donations, and the fortunate female who increased the population at the camp on the island has become the object of the greatest solicitude, while the number of baby clothes which have been presented to her would be enough for a score of new-born babes.
At the King's Island Light-house the 117 single men found most comfortable quarters, which, they were most lothe to leave; indeed the intimation, which was conveyed to them by Dr Webster, on Thursday, that early on the following morning they would he required to march, was received with anything but satisfaction.
The King's Island Lighthouse is situated on Cape Wickham, and is the great height of 370 feet above the sea level, so that the light can be seen at times from Cape Otway. The superintendent is -Mr Edward Nash Spong, who has three assistants under him. The position of a lighthouse-keeper residing on some out of-the-way land has often been a subject of commiseration, but the little community on King's Island are perfectly happy and contented with their lot in life. The superintendent resides in a good well-built eight roomed stone house, and has all his family around him. The assistants have also stone cottages of their own, neatly and comfortably furnished. There are a few cows, pigs, fowls, &c , which belonged to the superintendent, and at a short distance from the habitations there are several gardens, in which a few flowers and vegetables of all kinds are grown. The island is full of kangaroo and wallaby, which the assistants hunt three times a week, and any number of black swans and wild duck can be obtained for the trouble of shooting them, so that perhaps under all these circumstances Mr Spoil , the superintendent, might quote from "Gil Bias," and say, " I am quite my own master, agreeably lodged, perfectly easy in my circumstances. I am contented with my situation, and happy because I think myself so."
A small church, built in the orthodox ecclesiastical style, and with a steeple too, has been constructed, and in this edifice the islanders assemble for prayers every Sunday morning. The country is very undulating, and in parts thickly wooded with a sore of white maple and blackwood.  The scrub, which consists of brushwood and ti-tree, about 9 ft. high, is very thick, and difficult of penetration. We saw some very picturesque spots in oar journey from the rock to the lighthouse, which reminded us of a gentleman's park in the old country, with the undulations and thick belts of timber. There is a large fresh water lake on the island about a mile long, and this we passed close to in the course of our tour.
From being altogether unacquainted with the country and the whereabouts of the lighthouse, we made our journey rather a long one, by striking inland for a short cur, and the consequence was, that we made the distance twice as long as we should have done, besides having to cross two rivers, a swamp, and force our .way through a quantity of thick bush. Upon returning we had Mr Spong for a guide, and therefore were enabled to reach the rock much more comfortably in about half the time that we took to go.
 All along the route signal fires were lighted by the party, and these were seen from the Victoria, then lying in Franklin roads, so that boats were sent ashore, and the embarkation was effected at an early hour. The surf was so great that the boats could not come within fifty yards of the shore, so that the men had to wade through the water before reaching the boats. At the scene of the wreck at Fitzmaurice Bay, the passengers had formed a camp, consisting of tents made from the sails of the ship, the signal flags, and brushwood.
The camp was surrounded by thick timber and brushwood. The tents extended nearly round the circle forming the bay, while the stranded vessel was-before she went to pieces impaled on a. rock in the centre of the bay, which is almost barred by rocks rising out of the sea, and long reefs running out from the land into the water.
The passengers made themselves as comfortable as they could under the circumstances, and employed their time in collecting all they could from the wreck as the articles were washed ashore. In this way some of the cabin passengers have been enabled to recover a good deal of property; but it is much damaged.
Mr Parry, the second officer, and a seaman named McFadden, remain at the wreck to collect as much property as they can, and this will probably be brought up to Melbourne so soon as a sufficient quantity can be got together. Mr Parry will have to make his way up in the best manner he can, but it is expected that Captain Leggett-who has purchased the wreck of the Arrow, now ashore on the island-will shortly be proceeding to the spot, and that opportunity will afford the two the means of getting off.
In the meantime they have ample provisions to last them for a considerable time, with a liberal choice of liquors. Within 400 yards of this camp there is a tomb", covered with an iron tablet, and the inscription on this informs the reader that it was Greeted in memory of some 320 persons who were lost on this spot in the year 1852, upon which occasion only nine lives were saved.
It was a female immigrant ship, and one of the first that came out to the colony. The salvation of the lives of the 450 persons on board of the Netherby was indeed providential, and the passengers have indeed much to be thankful (or, when the whole of the circumstances of the vessel striking on a rock at night, and in this most dangerous locality, are taken into consideration. Captain Norman, in the Victoria, had to exercise the greatest caution in visiting this spot, in consequence of the sunken rocks which abound all along this coast. The Victoria has performed the service well, and her ability for this sort of business is an additional reason why she should be maintained on an efficient footing.
To-morrow morning those of the Netherby immigrants who wish to depart from Victoria will leave Melbourne by the steamer City of Melbourne, for Brisbane. During yesterday, divine service was conducted in the Exhibition building by the Rev. Mr Johnston, of the Floating Chapel in Hobson's Bay in the morning, and the Rev. Mr Cope in the afternoon. A substantial dinner was provided at two o'clock, and the passengers were regaled with beer. The men afterwards received pipes and tobacco" which of course were not used inside the building! The poor people, when leaving this city, will receive the bed they have been using and a pair of blankets. The hon. Mr Francis visited the Exhibition yesterday afternoon, and expressed himself highly satisfied with the arrangements nod the appearance of the building, The Netberby was the seventy-seventh vessel dispatched to Australia under the land order regulations. We understood that the gentlemen's committee are about to search the "kits," in order to discover if there is any property that is owned by their shipmates. The passengers who decide to stay in Victoria will be treated in a similar manner to other Government immigrants.

Shipping Movements and Activities of William Young    - from his descendants

File of extracts from Archives Office of Tasmania [CUS 38 Register of Colonial Vessels of the Port of Hobart] (see photocopy)

Archives Office of Tasmania : File LSD 1/115 - List of Whaling Stations
1837 Vol. 92, Folio 28/29 W. Young Schouten Island
1837 Vol.92, Folio 28/29 W. Young Wine Glass Bay
1841 Vol.33, Folio 145 W. Young Adventure Bay
Also, longer-term lease of whaling sites at Cookville, Adventure Bay, Bruny Island (also
Charles Dowdall, once held lease at Cookville - brother-in-law, husband of Susannah)

(note: other grants to William Young -1280 acres X2 at Trumpeter Bay, Bruny Island, also standard 3 acre whaling site De Witt Is.)

Archives Office of Tasmania, File CSO 50/1, Effort on Whaling - Hobart
Total Whales

Year Ships Boats Black Sperm
1832 8 27 195 2
1833 8 25 237
1834 9 34 257 35
1835 7 24 207
18365ships,2brigs, 7schooners,4sloops 16 -54 270 35
1837 ---1838
6 barques, 3 brigs, 5 schooners 15 63 645 8
1839 1 ship, 2 barques, 3brigs, 8 schrs 14 55 542 1
1840 2barques, 4 brigs, 8 schnrs 14 71 542 1
1841 16ships? 16 87 465 25
1842 12 67 219 12
1843 8 78 120 88
1844 11 33 1845
25 82 194 40
1846 22 85 245 ?
1847 5 ships, 7 brigs, 3 schooners 15 - 85 37
1848 25 92 99 113
1849 37 136 69 107
1850 36 124 24 110
1851 31 108 45 156
1852 21 73 30 86

see - Lawson, Bluegum Clippers (copy at hand)
see - O May, Whale ships and Whalers out of Hobart Town (copy at hand)
see --Crowther, W.L. 1920, on history of whaling in Tasmanian waters. Papers and Proceedings of the
Royal Society of Tasmania (for 1919), p.130.

Davis, B. 1990. Guide to Bruny Island History. 2nd edition. Bruny Island Historical Society, 1990.
40pp (not a great deal of useful information - see handwritten notes)

Gray, F. Oliver, 1978. Recollections of North Bruny Island. Richard Lord and Partners, Taroona,
Tasmania. 58pp.

[various detailed reminiscences of Young family descendants and their associations with Trumpeter Bay where William Young received two land grants of 1280 acres each.

At Trumpeter Bay there was a Young whaling Station. Also, "William Young owned a fleet of sailing ships. He brought a consignment of filters from Norfolk Island, carrying them as ballast in one of his boats. Many of these filters ended up on North Bruny. We have one that came from the old Pybus home at Sacriston". These "filters" were apparently large stone vessels carved out of sandstone at the Norfolk Island quarries and used for carrying water. There is a photograph of one in the book. ]

Pybus, Richard Cobden (compiler) 1988. South Bruny Island-Tasmania. A brief history of its settlement. R.C. & BJ. Pybus, Blackoaans Bay, Tasmania, 256pp.

p.4 "Bay whalers found the shores of Bruny Island, South Bruny in particular, and ideal staging post for their operations. In Adventure Bay, Cloudy (then called Bad) Bay and no doubt at other locations to a lesser extent they set up their camps." - also early sealing.

"Unlike the whaling fleet those engaged in taking seals did not need a land base for their operations but could remain at sea during their visits, using boats to hunt the seals and bringing them back to the ships. John Gray launched the 3 8 t schooner Industry in 1825 (sic) for the whaling firm of Young and Walford operating out of Adventure Bay (AOT)".

- small lots (1-3 acres) allocated on the eastern shore at Cookville. Those to obtain such grants were: Captain James Kelly (1829), Thomas Lucas (1829), William Young (1829), Bernard Walford (1829), Charles Dowdall (1830), Thomas Mason (1830) and William Mawle (1831). [Survey Section, Lands Department]

(p.3) Visitor (Geo. A. Robinson) in August 1829 recorded by N. J.B. Plomley in his book

"Friendly Mission": "Here is a large establishment consisting of three firms: Messrs Kelly & Lucas, Messrs Young & Walford and Mr Maycock. The number of men collectively employed were from eighty to ninety in number; and there are two schooners, two sloops and a large number of boats".

(p.5) [AOT NP 29/6] "Whaling did not stop at this stage as indicated by the log of the barque Augustus, Captain William Young, on a whaling voyage out of Hobart in 1850:
" Friday 3rd May 1850 made sail and stood in for Adventure Bay "
" Saturday 3rd May - saw two Right whales, lowered the boat and went in chase. The Captain succeeded in getting up to them but his boat steerer missed. At sunset the boats returned to the ship ".

(p5/6) on 14 Feb 1839, when a group of 8 escaped convicts from Port Arthur visited Adventure Bay, a statement was later taken from a John Sherherd - headsman in charge of Captain William Young s whaling station at Adventure Bay.

Nicholson, I. H. 1985. Shipping arrivals and departures. Tasmania, Vol.II, 1834 -1842 (Parts I, II, &
HI), and Gazetteer of Tasmanian Shipping 1803 - 1842 (Part IV). Roebuck Society Publication No.33,

- "Mary & Elizabeth", arr Hobart Town 12SEP1834, Jas (sic) Young, Master, NZ plundered by Maoris at Admiralty Bay o n 10AUG last by a young chief who had recently spent some months in Hobart Town.

- Young, Jas. Mary & Elizabeth (Master), dep 6 June  34, arr. 12 Sep  34
[There were probably at least two Youngs, masters of vessels, as too it seems there were two vessels named Industry.

- Young, William of Hobart Town, arrivals & (departures)
o          Tasmanian Lass (joint owner) 25.2.37; Owner 15..4.39 & 21.2.41, wreck**.
o          Bandicoot (joint owner) - (27.3.39)
o          John (owner) - 7.3.40

o          Highlander (owner) 1.3.37, [not owner according to Register - see below].
o          Camilla (master) - (21.2.38); M. 22.7.38; agent & part owner 23.1.39
o          Vestal master 10.8.41
o          Bandicoot-owner, 30.12.41, forNZ, sundrys
o          Fortitude - Young, master (Askin Morrison, owner/agent) 3.2.42, for NZ whaling grounds &         whaling stores; arr. HT 31.10.42, (Young) from whaling, with black oil and bone.
o          Wallaby -Young master, 31.10.42, forNZ, had arrived from NZ 14.10.42 (L. Bailey, master)             from whaling inc. Lord Howe for wood.

- arrivals & (departures) from and to New Zealand,. Vessels connected in some way, owner or master, with William Young 1834 -1842).
- Tasmanian Lass (8.5.33), 1.4.34.
-Industry 23.9.34, 23.12.34, (8.1.35), 7.4.35, 15.6.36.
- Highlander (note arr. 1.3.1837 above, under W. Young, presumably from elsewhere other than NZ) (2.11.37), 25.10.39, 28.10.41
- Wallaby (23.10.40), 31.10.42 (Note, this arrival (L. Bailey, master), is on the same day as Wm Young arrived from NZ, master of the Fortitude with black oil and bone),
- Fortitude 31.10.42 Wm. Young master, from NZ with black oil and bone
- Bandicoot (30.12.41), 23.3.42

Parsons, Ronald.(comp.). 1980. Tasmanian Ships Registered 1826-1850. Full details of every ship enrolled be the Registrar of British Ships at the ports of Hobart Town and Launceston. Printed and published by Ronald H. Parsons, Magill, SA 5072. (Copy in Genealogical Society of Queensland).
(Dates of financial interest by William Young in parentheses).

[NB: Highlander and Fortitude never owned in whole or in part by William Young, according to register - see notes at end]. W=wooden, m=masts, sch=schooner, bgn=brigantine, etc.

o          4/1829 INDUSTRY (1829-1840)
            W 1m sloop, 38 1/2 tons. B. 1829 by Mr Grey (sic), the Jetty, Hobart Town. Owners: B.
            Walford & Win Young: Jan 1832 Chas McLachlan & Wm Young: April 1840 Wm             Chamberlin [last entry Nov 1845 Richard Griffith: register closed with "lost", and not dated]. (Note: there was at least one other Industry, a 2m brig, B 1827 Quebec, registered 14/1835             Hobart, transferred in December 1836 to Launceston).

o          1/1831 TASMANIAN LASS (1830-1846)
            W 1m sloop: re-rigged 1840 - 2m sch: 47 1/4 tons: 477" x 15 10" x 9  0 1/2": B. 1830 John             Gray, Hobart Town: Owners: Bernard Walford & William Young; 1840 William Young:             Register closed 1846. (Wrecked Wine Glass Bay, VDL, early 1841)

o          2/1838 CAMILLA (formerly 48/1831 of Greenock)(1838-1844) W2rnbgn, 261 tons. 96T             x25 4" x 157". B. 1827 YarmouthNS. Owners: Charles McLachlan: June 1838 Charles             McLachlan & William Young. [Latter maintained 1/2 ownership until vessel lost and register             cancelled 1845. Lost at Streakey Bay, SA in 1844].

o          7/1833 JOHN (1840-1855)
            W 1m ctr, 34 1/3 tons, 41!9" x 14 9" x 6 . B 1833, ; May 1940 William Young; lost as per list       of 1855.

o          11/1839 SHAMROCK (April-Nov 1841)
            W 1m sloop. 31 tons, 46 6" x 15 0" x 7 5". B. 1832 Macquarie Harbour, VDL, for             Government, now sold: April to Nov 1841 William Young: sold to Duncan McPherson.

o          10/1838 WALLABY (1843-1853)
            W 3m bq, 284 tons 87 5" x 23 8" x 16 3". B. 1838 Port Arthur, VDL, for the government.
            Sold out of service Oct 1838. Owners: , March 1843 Askin Morrison (Hobart) & Arthur             Willis (London); March 1843 Askin Morrison (24), William Young (24) & Robert Gardiner             (16): April 1848 Askin Morrison (40) William Young (24): cancelled 1853. Ashore, salvaged,          renamed "Charlotte" of Samoa. [NB: A log for the Wallaby (1840-42) is to be found in the   Tasmanian  State Library, according to Morton in The Whale s Wake.]

o          23/1840 ABEONA (1845-1847)
            W 2m bgn, 96 2/3 tons. 62 . ; April 1845 Richard Griffiths (32) William Young (16) & Louis    Nathan (16) to Oct 1847.

o          19/1844 ELIZABETH REBECCA (1844-1845)
            W 2m brig, 99 tons, 57  x 19  x 10 . B. 1828 Macquarie Harbour, VDL, for the government,             Sold Nov 1844. Owners: William Young (32) James Gardiner (16) & Nathan, Moses & Co             (16), Lost,  register cancelled 1845.

o          2/1845 HARJETTE NATHAN ON31951 (1845-1856)
            W 3m bq, 126 tons, 81 7" x 21 3" x 9 3", B. 1844 William Williamson, Hobart Town.
            Owners: William Young (32) Charles Gardiner (20) & Nathan, Moses & Co (20); sold My             1856, missing in 1868 on voyage New Zealand - Tasmania.

o          33/1846 AUGUSTUS (formerly 6/1844 of Melbourne)( 1846-1853)
            W 3m bq, 138 tons, 78 . B. 1813/14 in Java, rebuilt Calcutta 1838. Owners: (Nov 1846)
            William Young (32), Bums, White & Co, transferred to Geelong in 1853.
            [ NB: log 1850, Tasmanian State Library.]

o          6/1842
            PATRIOT (1848-1849)
            W 3m ship. 189 tons, 80  x 23  x 13 . B 1826 St. Martins NB, , , August 1848
            William Young (32) Burns, White & Co (32): wrecked June 1849 in New Zealand.

o          4/1849
            LADYEMMA (1849-1854, 1855-1861)
            W 3m ship. 230 tons. 91  x 23  x 13 . B. Henry Degraves, Hobart Town. Owners: William             Young (32) Burns, White & Co (32); ; 1853 William Young snr (48) & jnr (16); Oct 1854             sold . 1855 to May 1861 Wm Young & partners

o          9/1847 PRYDE(1851)
            W 2m brig. 205 tons, B. Quebec 1842. Jan -Feb 1851 William Young.
o          36/1848 STRUGGLER (1853)
            W 1m sloop. 26 tons, 40 . July 1853 to Aug 1853, William Young jnr & snr: August 1853
            Thomas Merzger (sic) & Christopher Bastian, wrecked Wine Glass Bay, Tas, Nov 1855.

o          50/1858 TERROR (1856)
            W 3m ship, 257 tons, 96 . B. 1840 Cork: Owned Feb 1856 William Young & T.J.             McGrath.(wrecked Chathai±L Islands, NZ, Feb 1859).
            [NB: logs, 1848-49 VanDiemen s Land Folk Museum, 1852-53 Mitchell library, Sydney.]

NB:The following ships appear to have never been owned in whole or in part by William Young, though it seems he had some associations with both.

            8/1837 HIGHLANDER
            B 1819, New Providence. Owners: 1837, Win Morgan Orr & John Lovitt: Oct 1839 W.M.             Orr:

            W Ipi ctr, 26.5 tons, 43 . B. William Tuck, Bruni, VDL.
            [But see: Nicholson, I. H. 1985. Shipping arrivals and departures. Tasmania,

o          Fortitude - Young, master (Askin Morrison, owner/agent) 3.2.42, for NZ whaling grounds &         whaling stores; arr. HT 31.10.42, (Young) from whaling, with black oil and bone].

[ NB: Log of the Fortitude (1843-47) is to be found in the Tasmanian State Library, according to Morton in The Whale s Wake.]

Note: Askin Morrison had interests in the following vessels:
            13/1835 MARIA, 1/1837 EUDORA, 21/1837 ELIZABETH, 13/1838 WALLABY, 2/1840             AGNES & ELIZABETH, II1844 JOANNA, 33/1845 ARIEL, 30/1846 MACQUARRIE,             37/1846 FLYING Clifford.

Copping, R. A narrative of Captain R. Copping of Hobart Town (typescript), W.L. Crowther Library,

State Library of Tasmania, Hobart. - quoted from p.3 in H. A. Morton The Whale s Wake,

"An old Australian whaling captain, reminiscing about his youthful days on the whaleship Tasmanian Lass, said how interesting it was to watch his captain bargaining with Maoris for pigs in the early 1830s. One chief he found amusing:  he would appear to get into [a rage] at some offer from the Captain, and only after if he thought he had got the best he would laugh and shout and tell all the

Smith, A.G.E. 1986. Ships employed in the South Sea trade 1775 -1861, compiled from Lloyds List and other contemporary publications. Roebuck Society Publication No. 36. [much useful information on shipping movements and locations.]

Boultbee, J. 1986. Journal of a rambler: the journal of John Boultbee. ed. June Stark, Auckland:
Oxford University Press. - to be read, especially for descriptions of shore whaling at Bruny Island,


Begg, A. Charles & Begg, Neil C. 1979. The world of John Boultbee, including an account of sealing in Australia and New Zealand. Whitcoulls, Christchurch, NZ.

o          detailed description of bay whaling at Bruny Island 1829
o          index - Young, William, sealer, whaler and ship owner
p. 199 "In July [1827] Hokianga was visited by another Grono-built brig, the Industry, under

Captain William Young, which took Kent* as a passenger to Port Jackson, arriving there on 1 September 1827, with a cargo of 16 tons flax, 12 tons potatoes, 3 tons pork and 5 tons of Salt".
(Sydney Gazette 05SEP1827).

o          Kent, master of the Elizabeth, on which Boultbee made an extended visit to NZ
            [Note: Kangaroo Island, off South Australia, was the principle source of salt in the region             according to Eric Guiler].

            op.3 00 - reference to a visit from TeRauparaha from Kapiti in 1825-to trade. "Then went for        Q. Charlotte s Sound [from Chatham Is.]. Beginning of Feb 26 / Rauparaha came out with             canoes locally manned with natives who had come across from Katpiti to war with the South   natives. Wanted powder and muskets but give them iron hoop for potatoes. Next day stood for        Taranaki close to Sugar Loaves".

Tonnessen, J. N. & Johnsen, A.O. 1982. The history of modern whaling. [Translated from the
Norwegian by R.I. Christophersen]. C. Hurst & Co. London, Australian National University Press,
Canberra, 798pp.

p.220. - precis. Up to the end of the 1820 s- mainly sperm whales- from c. 1830 right whales played a much greater part - whaling ships anchored up in bays - i.e. "bay whaling" - golden age in 183O s, culminating in 1840, when several hundred vessels are reported to have operated around the coast of NZ and adjacent grounds in the Pacific.

The first shore stations were built in Tasmania in 1804 - in 1841 there were 35 stations on this island (VDL) - many others in SW Australia and in NZ. In the course of 10 yrs right whales were hunted to the verge of extinction, their near extermination being cynically undertaken.

George Guest, (1767–1841)   by E. R. Pretyman

This article was published in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 1, (MUP), 1966
George Guest (1767-1841), convict and settler, came from Gloucester, England, where on 24 March 1784 he was sentenced to transportation for seven years. He sailed in the Alexander in the First Fleet for New South Wales. On 17 March 1790 he arrived at Norfolk Island. After his sentence expired he became a settler there and received rations until 1794. In December 1796 Guest was granted fourteen acres (5.7 ha) at Norfolk Island, and later he supplied pork and maize to the government. When plans for the transfer of Norfolk Island settlers to Van Diemen's Land were announced he had 600 ewes and 342 wethers, and was recommended by Major Joseph Foveaux as a most industrious settler.
With his wife Mary Bateman, a convict from the Lady Juliana, and six children, and 300 ewes, Guest went to Port Dalrymple but, not wishing to join the five Norfolk Islanders already at Norfolk Plains (Longford), they continued to the Derwent and landed there in September 1805. Thus he was the first Norfolk Islander to settle in the south and the first to introduce sheep into Van Diemen's Land, though he had lost a 'considerable part' of them en route.
He was offered accommodation at New Town but preferred to use a warehouse built by William Collins and lent by Captain Forrest, while he began negotiations for 424 acres (172 ha) to which he considered he was entitled. On 1 January 1806 he was granted twenty-four acres (10 ha) near Macquarie Point, but since there was no school for his children he proposed to return to England. Stating that he would come back, he departed with his family for Sydney almost immediately, and arrived there on 15 February. He was there to sign an address to Governor William Bligh in September 1806; some time afterwards he returned to Hobart Town. On 12 September 1808 his daughter, after whom Sarah Island in Macquarie Harbour was named by James Kelly in 1815, was married to Thomas Birch. On 8 July 1809 Bligh, on board the Porpoise at the Derwent, recorded that Guest and another had supplied them with fresh provisions.
After Governor Lachlan Macquarie arrived Guest was constantly engaged in controversy over claims for land. For three years he occupied a farm belonging to a settler named Pitt thinking that formalities for its transfer to him were being completed in Sydney; then he found that the title meantime had been vested in another and he received little compensation for the improvements he had made.
About 1812 he let several small houses, on allotments near the Town Rivulet opposite the site of the market, to the government as barracks for the 73rd Regiment. During one of his frequent absences in Sydney and at the time of the detachment's departure these building were demolished, the land remeasured and wrongly conveyed to S. Gunn, Anthony Fenn Kemp and George Gatehouse.
He sought compensation for this and for land taken to widen streets and open new ones. On 1 May 1818 by decision of a board of inquiry he was to receive £400, 300 acres (121 ha), cattle, other town allotments and a year's rations for his family to cover all his claims, but he remained dissatisfied. On 21 December Macquarie wrote to Lieutenant-Governor William Sorell: 'I regret to find that the claims of that tiresome man George Guest are yet unadjusted to his satisfaction … I shall most readily approve of your final decision on this Man's Claims as I have now been sufficiently plagued and tormented with them for nearly these last nine years'. Sorell at least was still being 'tormented' in March 1820 and, after applying for further grants in 1825, Guest was still negotiating in 1828.
By that time his wife was in the Insane Asylum at Liverpool, New South Wales. In 1825 Guest appears to have opened the Seven Stars Inn in Campbell Street, Hobart[3]. He died on 23 March 1841.

Mary Bateman (1773-1829) born in London, and as a 15 year old was tried at the Old Bailey on 7 May 1788 for the theft of a silver watch.  She was sentenced to 7 years transportation to New South Wales and travelled with the Second Fleet on Lady Juliana arriving in Sydney Cove on 3 June 1790 and later sent with other female convicts to Norfolk Island on 7 August 1790 aboard Surprise. 
 On 5 November 1791 George and Mary were married by the Reverend Richard Johnson and had five children by 1804. George and Mary with Edward Risby were independent of stores of meat by September 1792 because a sow he provided for 4 pounds produced a litter of ten. 
By October George was settled on 12 acres, six of which was plough-able and sold his lot in November 1794 for 22 pounds.  Over the next few years he bought and sold leases and grants, sold stores to government and increased his stock of animals. In earlier years he had suffered floggings for a variety of small crimes, neglect of duty, once for employing two convicts without leave, an early sign of his developing entrepreneurial skills.

In 1805 with his wife Mary Bateman, four children, Sarah b 1792, George b 1794, John born 1799, William b1804 (baby Mary died in 1804) and 300 ewes, George went to Port Dalrymple (Launceston Tasmania), but not wishing to join the five Norfolk Islanders already at Norfolk Plains (Longford), they continued to the Derwent on the Sydney with Lt Lord and landed there in November 1805. So George was the first Norfolk Islander to settle in the south and the first to introduce sheep into Van Diemen’s Land

Life of the Harbour Masters

Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Saturday 4 November 1922, page 11

The name of Captain James Kelly, who in 1815 took part in the discovery of Port Davy and Macquarie Harbour, has been revived upon a suggestion emanating from the Hobart Marine Board, that the monument to his memory in St David's old burial ground should be moved to another site in view of the steps now being taken to convert the burial ground into a public park, and his early association with the port as harbourmaster.
At a recent meeting of the Marine Board it was decided to obtain notes on the life of Captain Kelly. The assistance of Mr. J. Moore-Robinson was secured, with the result that he was able to furnish the biographical sketch below, which came before members of the Board at its meeting yesterday. The secretary of the Board, Mr. Hawson, intimated that control of Captain Kelly's monument had by Act of Parliament been vested in the City Corporation, along with several other historical monuments standing in St. David's burial ground.  In the circumstances, the Board decided it could play no part in the removal of Captain Kelly's monument.
(Compiled by Mr. J. Moore-Robinson.)
Captain James Kelly was born in Parramatta, N.S.W., on Christmas Eve, 1791. His parents were in the most humble circumstances and he received practically no education. His earliest inclinations led him to a life of adventure, and was scarcely ten years of age when he shipped as a boy on one of the small colonial vessels trading out of Sydney. Naturally smart, he quickly acquired proficiency in seamanship, and ultimately became one ot the most notable sailors of a rough and ready school.
For six years he was engaged in the coastwise trade, and then in 1807 made his first long sea voyage. This was in the Sydney-built ship, King George, owned by Messrs Kable and Underwood. On this ship he voyaged to Fiji, returning to Sydney with a cargo of sandalwood.
Immediately after this he obtained a position as a subordinate officer in a whaling ship, and during the next five years was engaged in various whaling, sealing, and trading enterprises - which took him not only north and south of Sydney on the Australian coast, but as far as New Zealand and Van Diemen's Land. There is no record so far as I know of the name of the ship in which he first visited the latter island. In giving evidence before the Imperial Royal Commissioner, Mr. J. T. Bigge, in May, 1830, Captain Kelly said that he had commanded whalers for seven years prior to his appointment as Harbourmaster at Hobart
(See Historical Records of Australia, Series III, Vol . [ III, page ?? ) This would make him only 21 years of age when he became master. Much of that period of seven years was spent in Tasmanian waters.

In 1815 he was associated with Mr. T. W. Birch in a memorable voyage round the West Coast of Tasmania, in the course of which Port Davey and Macquarie Harbour were discovered. This was the second occasion on which the island had been circumnavigated, the first having been the more memorable voyage of Matthew Flinders and George Bass in 1798.
Three accounts of this voyage of Kelly's are extant, and all three differ materially. One account by T. W. Birch states that the expedition sailed in his (Birch's) schooner Henrietta Packet as far as Port Davey, which they discovered, after which Kelly went northwards in a whaleboat, discovering Macquarie Harbour. The other two accounts are in the form of M. S. S. journals. One of these is in the possession of the Royal Society of Tasmania, and the other is in the Mitchell Library, Sydney. The former is undoubtedly in Kelly's handwriting, while the latter is signed but not written by him.
While both accounts state with much circumstantial detail that the whole voyage round Tasmania was accomplished in a whaleboat, they differ in regard to various dates in December, 1815, and January, 1816, during which months the voyage was accomplished. It is impossible at present to determine which account is correct, but it is worthy of note that the V..D.L. Government granted T. W. Birch exclusive trading rights to Macquarie Harbour and Port Davey for twelve months from July 1, 1816, as a reward for his discovery.
The official record of this grant contains no reference to Captain Kelly.
(See "Hobart Town Gazette" of September 14, 1816.)
In May, 1817, Kelly was master of T. W. Birch's brig Sophia, and we find him taking an active part in the proceedings connected with the notorious visit to the Derwent by Lieutenant Charles Jeffreys, of His Majesty's brig Kangaroo, on contraband service. He also traded to New Zealand, and in 1817-18 had two stirring adventures at Port Daniel (Otago) with the Maoris. During the years 1817-18-19 he assisted in the pursuit and capture of runaway convicts, who had seized several vessels, including the Young Lachlan.
Probably because of his daring in these exploits, Governor William Sorell, in a despatch dated April 6 1819, nominated Kelly as Harbourmaster at Hobart, a post previously first held by William Collins, who was appointed by Governor David Collins in July 1804, and Governor Macquarie, accepting the nomination, appointed him Harbourmaster and Joint Pilot, at a salary of £30 per annum and the usual fees.
 The Joint Pilot with him was Michael Mansfield, who came out as A.B. with David Collins in the Ocean. This was in a despatch dated May 13, 1819. (The appointment was gazetted June 19, 1819. q.v.) It is interesting to note that Kelly's duties as Harbourmaster were "To moor and unmoor vessels at Hobart, to inspect Government ships, to certify requisitions for their stores and to command expeditions round the shores of the rivers." He remained as Harbourmaster master until about 1831, when he became well off and retired from public life, until losses made an appointment desirable, and in 1838 he was appointed wharfinger by the newly created Marine Board. The offer of the appointment is contained in the minutes of a meeting of the Marine Board held on July 2, 1838. The minute reads - "That Mr. Kelly be offered a permanent appointment under the Board at a salary of £75 p. a. to look after the swing bridge and to keep the dock and wharf in the immediate neighbourhood in good order."
In September, 1820 Kelly, as Harbour-master, was allotted an official seat in St. Davids Church, then being built. Prior to that he had been granted 100 acres of land at the north end of Bruny Island, the place being still known as Kelly's Point. He did nothing towards cultivating or improving his land until after 1830. While Harbourmaster he built the house known as Rock House, portion of which is still standing and which may be seen on the bank of the rivulet in Campbell-street, at the back of the General Hospital.
In this house he and his family lived, and it was also used for commercial purposes. He also lived in the house in Lower Macquarie-street, lately used as tramway offices, and in a house in Brisbane street. He had left his house (Macquarie-street) on April 30, 1839, about 10 in the morning for the New Wharf, and walked up Argyle-street in company with Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Holland. At a point just opposite the Synagogue he fell to the ground in a fit. Although at once removed to the General Hospital, he expired on his way thither and on arrival was pronounced dead by Dr. Turnley.

He was aged 68 years. At the inquest a verdict of death by apoplexy was returned. He was buried in St. David's Cemetery on April 23. Mrs. Griffiths, wife of Captain Griffiths (his brother-in-law, for he married Miss Elizabeth Griffiths in Sydney in 1814) was buried at the same time. One of his daughters married Mr. A. C. C. Ashton of Hobart, and another Captain John Halle
During the decade 1821-31 Kelly acquired considerable wealth, which he lost during the latter years of his life. He acquired a large block of land at Battery Point, portion of which still preserves his name in Kelly-street and Kelly's Steps. This notwithstanding, he died in poor circumstance though much esteemed by his fellow citizens. Of his large family (four sons and three daughters), two met with tragic fates, records of which may be seen by the curious on a tombstone in St. David's old cemetery. One of these was James Bruni, the eldest son, killed by a blow from a whale on August 16, 1841, aged 21 years. The other was Thomas, third son, drowned by a boat upsetting in the Derwent, October 18, 1842, aged 16 years.

James Kelly retained office as Harbourmaster until 1831, when he was succeeded by Francis Pitt, who had been Water Bailiff. In 1830 James Hobb was wharfinger, and the Joint Pilots were James Kelly and John Lovett, (appointed January 24 1827).
In 1833 Pitt was still Harbourmaster and the pilots were James Lucas (buried in St. George's old cemetery), William Lawrence and James Aldridge. Captain William Moriarty R.N., had then been appointed as Port Officer. From 1831 until about 1850 he was engaged in mercantile pursuits, making money and losing it with equal facility.

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