Limestone quarrying has long been an important industry at Houghton but until the early 1980s the town’s most recent industrial history was dominated by coal. It was in the 19th century that Houghton became a significant colliery district. This followed the opening of Houghton Colliery (1823-1981) which was one of the first collieries to mine the coal that lay beneath the magnesium limestone of eastern Durham, where it was previously thought that wasn’t any coal.
Recently, a collection of Sir Henry's letters and drawings has come to light revealing a great deal about these buildings and gardens at Newton. One of the earliest is a builder's final account for the main construction work dated 5 November 1717. The resultant remodelling was very successful, as the Hall's handsome west front would show. During this remodelling it was decided to install new sash windows, something of a contemporary design statement. These were originally made in London and some were sent up to Newton, but after difficulties fixing them Sir Henry agreed to have local craftsmen do the work. 
Within the enlarged defences, privately owned buildings were used for supplying ships, although the area was later purchased by the Navy and would become the victualling yard now known as Royal Clarence Yard. Forton Mill, a tide mill, had been built nearby to provide flour and the remainder of this area was occupied by St. George Barracks. Between 1780 and 1830 the Town developed rapidly, producing some fine buildings, notably in Clarence Square. The tight streets around the Square however provided squalid living conditions and were often patrolled by the naval Press Gangs.
Ocean, the slower of the two ships, was directed to sail direct to Port Phillip if she lost contact with Calcutta. The ships did lose contact so Ocean did not put in at Cape Town, arriving at Port Phillip on 7 October. At Cape Town two more sailors deserted Calcutta. One was captured and returned.
After leaving Rio, Ocean sailed through the Southern Atlantic and into the Indian Ocean.
She experienced frightening weather conditions for 77 days. Twenty days out of Rio, George Harris recorded that ‘for many days we could not sit at table but were obliges to hold fast by boxes and on the floor and all our crockery were almost broken to pieces, besides many seas into the cabin and living in the state of darkness from the cabin windows being stopped up by the deadlights … I was never so melancholy in my life before’. In such conditions work on deck was extremely dangerous. On 9 August John Bowers fell overboard and was lost. Ocean finally sighted land on before sighting land on course and off Port Phillip on 5 October; she was on course and off Port Phillip.
Parole Bangor C. Sign Landass
A Review of arms and necessaries tomorrow as usual.
Parole Sawbridge C. Sign Bull
Parole Basilesk C Sign Escort
Parole Wilson C Sign Adams
Mr Wm. Nicholls is appointed a Superintendent of Convicts and is to be observed as such, he will take upon him the direction of the Carpenters belonging to the Colony.
Samuel Gunn will direct the Department of Shipwrights and John Fell will assist the Storekeeper in the Issue of Stores and Provisions.
Lt Sladden, The Rev. Mr. Knopwood and G.P. Harris Esqr. will meet on Monday Morning at Eleven o'clock at the Mess room to hear and determine such Complaints as the LtGovernor shall cause to be laid before them for that Purpose.
The Rev.d Mr Knopwood, Mr. Bowden (Assistant Surgeon) G.P. Harris Esqr. (Surveyor) and A.W.H. Humphrey (Mineralogist) will hold themselves in readiness to embark on board the Ocean Store Ship with the Lt.Governor.
A Detachment consisting of 1 Sub.n 1 Serj.t 2 Corpls 1 Drum.r & 20 Privates will hold themselves in readiness to embark on board the Ocean Store Ship.
Officer for this Duty 2d Lt Lord.
It having been represented to the Lieutenant Governor that some Person or Persons have inconsiderately suggested from the Suddeness of the Death of the late Nicholas Piroelle, that he had died by Poison, he thinks it necessary to publish the following Report of the Surgeon, who opened the Body and in his presence satisfactorily and clearly ascertained the Cause of his Death.
Upon opening the Thorax, the Pericardium and the sides of the Chest contained a large quantity of water which had stopped the Action of the Lungs. The Heart was unusually large but not otherwise diseased. In the Abdomen I examined the Stomach and Intestines particularly, which were perfectly health and contained a small quantity of half digested food, in which there was nothing remarkable. The Liver was also much enlarged from some former disease.
Signed Matt.w Bowden
General Orders Hobart Town 1st July 1804
Parole Dorchester C. Sign Carlton
A Ewe Lamb the Property of Mr Bowden having been stolen from the Penn in the rear of the Hospital in the course of last night by some Person or Persons at present unknown the Lieut Governor is hereby pleased to promise to procure a conditional Emancipation for any Prisoner who shall give him such certain Information of the offender or offenders as shall enable him to convict him or them of the said Felony.
General Orders Hobart Town 8th Octr. 1804
Parole King Island C Sign Calcutta
The Deputy Commissary will until further orders issue to the sick at the General Hospital the flour that came from England in the Ocean Store Ship.
During the hot weather the non commissioned officers and privates will dress in mosquito trousers.
The officers will dress in white, or nankeen breeches and boots or nankeen pantaloons.
General Orders Hobart Town 20th May 1806
Parole Northwick C Sign
The Quarter Master will receive from His Majesty’s Stores one pair of Shoes for each of the Detachment tomorrow morning at Eight o’clock.
Detail for Duty
General Orders Hobart Town 21st May 1806
Parole Whitecomb C Sign
A few pair of shoes having been forwarded from England in the Ship William Pitt and received here by the King George, the Commissary will this day issue one pair of Shoes to each of the Drummers and Privates of the Royal Marines, and one pair to each of the Male Prisoners whose names are contained in a List delivered to the Storekeeper. As soon as more arrive they will be issued to those who are not included in the present serving.
General Orders Hobart Town 16th June 1806
Parole Wellingboro’ C Sign
The Commanding Officer having received an application from the non-commissioned Officers and Privates of the Detachment praying to be informed upon what terms and conditions they came out to this country, acquaints them, that from the circumstance of his having been furnished by the Secretary of State, in his quality of Lieut. Governor, with the assurances that were given to the first Detachment of the same Corps that was sent on a similar service to New South Wales, he has reason to suppose they were meant for his guidance with respect to that now serving in this Settlement and for whose information he now states what those assurances were, viz.
That such of them as should have behaved well, should be allowed to quit the Service upon their return to England, or be discharged abroad upon the relief designed to take place at the expiration of three years after their landing and be permitted to settle in the Country.
That in the event of any of them becoming Settlers the following encouragement was held out, viz.
To every non-commissioned Officer, an allotment of 130 acres of Land, if single, and of 150 acres if married.
To any Private Soldier 80 acres of Land, if single, 100 if married, and 10 acres of Land for each child, at the time of the allotment taking place, free of all Fees, Taxes, Quit Rents, and other acknowledgments for the Term of 5 years, then to be liable to an annual Quit Rent of one shilling for every 50 acres, to be supplied with cloathing and one year’s Provisions, with Seed Grain, Tools and Implements of Agriculture; and on it appearing that they can maintain, feed and cloath them, a certain number of Convicts is to be assigned to each of them for Labour.
With respect to the wish of the Detachment to be informed, why, if the Marines formerly at Port Jackson should have been allowed Spirits from their landing, until their leaving the Settlement, and they were only to receive it for 2 years after their Landing, so great a distinction should be made between them. The Commanding Officer informs them that it was at his particular request they received any Spirits, and that it is not for them to enquire why any distinction was made with respect to them, but to be thankful for this liberal allowance they have been indulged with.
On the 18th November a ration for sick convicts under medical treatment was fixed. On the 3rd August, 1804, Collins informed Lord Hobart that the prevailing diseases at the Derwent wore scurvy, diarrhoea, and catarrh.
This was the period of famine and suffering, and a vigorous effort was made to arrest the progress of scurvy by the issue of kangaroo meat and soup. It was announced by general order on the 10th September, 1804, that the Lieut.-Governor has caused two boilers to be set up at the General Hospital, whereat, under the inspection of the surgeon, soup boiled with rice will be issued at 12 o'clock each day to all persons who may be afflicted with the above disease or who may be of a weakly habit of body.
The most eligible place for the erection of a hospital and a gaol, he pointed out to the Inspector of Works, is a rising, airy piece of ground on the west side of the rivulet, and it is there, declared His Excellency, they must be erected whenever it may be convenient to commence building them. The death of Dr. Matthew Bowden, Principal Surgeon at Hobart Town, occurred on the 23rd October, 1814, and the surgeon in charge of the General Hospital in 1815 was probably Dr. William Hopley, who died in October of that year and was buried in the same grave as his old friend, Lieut.-Colonel Collins, with whom he arrived in Tasmania.
He was succeeded at the institution by Dr. Edward Luttrell, who had only three months previously received the appointment of assistant surgeon at Parramatta. In February of 1817, Samuel Lightfoot was still performing the duties of assistant, for in a case he gave evidence that he was called to dress the wounds of man who had been stabbed in the neck by a woman. Lightfoot died suddenly on the morning of Sunday, the 17th May, 1818.
According to the obituary in the Gazette he had been for many years assistant at the General Hospital. He came to the Settlement with the late Lieut.-Governor Collins, and was generally respected by all who knew him. As the deceased was in perfect health before he died a coroner's jury was, of course, summoned, which turned the verdict of died by the visitation of God.
Hobart Reading Room (Tas)
Crowther - pamphlets quartos (Stack)
CRO.PQ 994.6 BOW
Having returned to Port Phillip, Humphrey sailed with the rest of Collins's expedition to the Derwent where he was soon at work searching for minerals. He made several journeys of exploration with the botanist, Robert Brown, and Jorgen Jorgenson. They ascended the Derwent at least as far as the River Clyde and made two excursions over Mount Wellington to reach the Huon River. In 1805 Humphrey moved to New South Wales where he worked for two years on both Norfolk Island and the mainland, chiefly engaged in examining iron deposits, samples of which were sent to Sir Joseph Banks. In 1807 he accompanied Surveyor Charles Grimes to Launceston and discovered near Tunbridge the salt pans which proved a great boon to the early settlers. From Launceston he walked to Hobart Town in three days. He resigned in 1812 as mineralogist, pleading that he was worn out by the privations endured in his explorations in both colonies, but it seems that he was no longer interested in his profession. However, he maintained his interest in scientific subjects by becoming a corresponding member of the Horticultural Society of London. He also corresponded with Sir William Hooker.
In 1814 his appointment as a magistrate, held temporarily for the previous four years, was confirmed though Governor Lachlan Macquarie did not at first approve of him. Because of punishments he had meted out, he was hated by the convicts. Michael Howe and his fellow bandits burned down his stacks and barn and ransacked his house at Pittwater.
In 1815 he sought compensation for his losses. Three years later he was appointed coroner, superintendent of police and chief magistrate at Hobart. This made him the most powerful man in the colony next to Lieutenant-Governor William Sorell, being the chief executive officer in the capital. He was the most important witness called by Commissioner John Thomas Bigge, supplied him with much information about his control of licensing, the convicts, the police and weights and measures, and gave a comprehensive report on transportation.
When Van Diemen's Land was made a separate colony Humphrey was appointed a member of the newly-established Legislative Council and in 1825 of the Executive Council. An important assignment for him in 1826 was to sit with two others on a board of inquiry into the conduct of the attorney-general, Joseph Gellibrand. As a result of their finding Gellibrand was dismissed. The same year Humphrey was highly commended for his service against the bushrangers led by Matthew Brady who attacked his farm at Plenty in the Derwent valley.
In 1828 he retired from his official duties owing to ill health, receiving a pension of £400. He retained his seat on the councils until his death the following year. (Sir) George Arthur, like Sorell before him, praised highly the work of his chief magistrate who with a modest salary had in no way enriched himself while holding public office.
Humphrey also played a large part in the growth of agriculture in the island, supplying the commissariat with meat, breeding stud pigs and Saxon merino sheep, a number of which were slaughtered by Brady's gang.
The land commissioner, Roderic O'Connor, thought Humphrey's farm Humphreyville at the Plenty River was 'one of the most gratifying Sights in the Colony'. It was managed by his wife, formerly Harriet Sutton of Sydney, a convict whom he had married in 1813 rather than obey Macquarie's request to return her to her father in Sydney. He left the property to his widow, and the government bought grain from her, to save her from financial embarrassment. She later married John Kerr.
Displaying 8 Lots in Category - Settlement 1788-1825 - Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania)*