Monday, September 17, 2018

HP9 Bushrangers and Villians and Honouring the Pioneers

Bushrangers and the Shone/Bradshaw Family


Martin Cash - Bushranger Martin Cash was Tasmania's most notorious bushranger although his escapade lasted only a brief 20 months from Boxing Day 1842 until August 29th. 1843 when he was captured in Hobart.

A rebellious Irishmen he spent much of his life in and out of gaol, finally finding his way and passing away peacefully in Hobart in A
ugust 1877 aged 69.

How a dangerous bushranger morphed into a respectable citizen is another of those puzzling stories from our early settlers.


Colonial Times and Tasmanian Advertiser (Hobart, Tas. : 1825 - 1827), Friday 30 March 1827, page 2

In our article upon Macquarie Harbour of last week, we mentioned that the runaways from that place, are generally stopped by a large river. A Correspondent has since inform-ed us, that Lieut. Dalrymple, with Mr. Russel, of Dennis-town, were lately within 14 or 15 miles of that Settlement. It appears they proceeded on foot by Lake Echo crossing the Dee, in a south-westerly direction ; and having passed several rivers and streams, they arrived at the Derwent. From the hills in the immediate neighbourhood, the estuary of Macquarie Harbour was quite visible. Here they discovered large tracts of marsh land, which were covered with horse dung and we have no doubt but this is the spot discovered by the bush-rangers, where Mr. Triffitt's horses were left. It appears, this party went along the banks of the Derwent for some distance, but as some of them could not swim, and provisions were not abundant with them, they returned, skirting the Derwent by the High Plains. We understand it be their opinion, that is is perfectly practicable to go to the Settlement at Macquarie Harbour on foot, in four days from the Clyde. We have also heard that there are immense tracts of excellent land, stretching from the upper extremity of Lake Echo to the S.W. W.,and N.W., and in the vicinity of the
Shannon River.

Hobart Town Courier (Tas. : 1827 - 1839), Saturday 27 November 1830, page 2

Lower Clyde, Nov. 20. - The natives have been in the neighbourhood of the Big River, for the last fortnight. They robbed the shepherd's hut on Mr. D.Taylor's grant, on the 6th inst, of everything it contained. They subsequently robbed Mr. Jamieson's & old Mr. Triffitt's huts. Three men belonging to Mr. J. and others went in pursuit of them on Monday last, and fell in with about thirty of them. I hear that they shot one dead and wounded another, said to be a very large man. They passed this man, to pursue the remainder of the blacks, and on their return he could not be found. The men destroyed eight of their dogs, and a great number of spears, and recovered several blankets, panikins, and other, articles which they had recently stolen from the huts in the vicinity. Would it not be useful, now that so many men are in search of the blacks, to set fire to the scrub in every direction? The blacks would surely be unable to conceal themselves so effectually from their pursuers if the scrub were recently burned.

Martin Cash - Bushranger Martin Cash was Tasmania's most notorious bushranger although his escapade lasted only a brief 20 months from Boxing Day 1842 until August 29th. 1843 when he was captured in Hobart.

A rebellious Irishmen he spent much of his life in and out of gaol, finally finding his way and passing away peacefully in Hobart in August 1877 at age 69.
Born at Enniscorthy in County Wexford, Ireland in1808 to a comfortably well off family, he achieved a reasonable standard of education and wanted for little.

Women were his downfall all his life and after several minor scrapes with the law he was eventually sentenced to seven years transportation to
New South Wales at age 18 for attempting to murder a rival suitor for his girlfriend Mary by shooting him in the upper chest after seeing the two
lovers through a window.

While this is Cash's account as documented in his autobiography, the official records show he was transported for house-breaking. Whatever, he was
placed aboard the transport ship  Marquis of Huntley  and sailed from Cook harbour arriving at the 40 year old settlement of Sydney Town on
the 10th of February 1828 to serve his sentence.

Less notorious prisoners were assigned to new settlers in the infant colony and Cash went to a George Bowman in the Hunter Valley some 150km. north-west of Sydney as a stockman. He served his time there and received his Ticket-Of-Leave, continuing his work and striking up a relationship with a Bessie Clifford with whom he shared a house.

Around this time he became involved with a rustler named Boodie who asked for his assistance in branding some cattle. Whether Cash did or didn't know the cattle were stolen doesn't matter. They were observed branding the cattle and Boodie admitted to Cash they were not his. Fearful of his freedom, Martin and Bessie decided to quickly sell up and move to Tasmania for a new start. They sailed aboard the Francis Freeling  on the 10th. February 1837, exactly seven years after Cash arrived at Botany Bay.

After a few months in Hobart the couple moved around southern Tasmania finding work at various properties as farm workers until Cash again got into trouble with the police and was sentenced to another seven years for stealing from his employer.

He escaped briefly but was recaptured and an additional 18 months was added to his sentence. Undeterred, he escaped again and this time nearly made it to Melbourne with Bessie before he was again captured and another 2 years was added. He now faced over 10 years in prison and was considered a difficult prisoner. He was transferred from Hobart to Port Arthur, on the Tasman Peninsula south-east of Hobart and a maximum security prison.

Notorious for its harsh conditions and considered escape-proof, it could only be reached by ship or a narrow isthmus across which fierce dogs were chained within a few inches of one another and armed guards were posted. The waters both side were dangerous and shark infested (or so the prisoners were told), and escape was impossible.

At Port Arthur Cash met and became friendly with Lawrence Kavenagh and George Jones and they planned an elaborate escape which they achieved on 26th December 1842 by tying their clothes to their heads and swimming across the  shark infested  waters.

They immediately turned to bushranging and sought out properties of the rich, homesteads, hotels and unsuspecting travelers creating fear and consternation across the the state. They were involved in several dramatic shoot-outs which only enhanced their notorious reputation.

Their status grew amongst the lesser classes whom they left alone, and their deeds were seen much as a Robin Hood adventure, where they took from the rich, but did't distribute to the poor. They earned the nicknames of  Cash, Kavenagh and Jones  or Cash & Co. ( These days it might be  Cash & Carry . The police were desperate to catch them and restore order.
Word reached Cash that his beloved Bessie was having an affair with a Joe Pratt and he determined to go into Hobart and kill them both.

Whether this was an elaborate trap set by the police or not it drew Cash and Kavenagh to the city on the evening of the 29th August 1843. They dressed as sailors to avoid detection, but were soon recognised. Kavenagh was injured in the ensuing fight and Cash ran into Melville St where he not only encountered the Prisoners Barracks, but Police Constable Peter Winstanley, who came out of the Old Commodore hotel to see what the commotion was. In his attempt to halt the fleeing and armed Martin Cash he was fatally shot.

Other police, and several civilians eventually restrained Cash after a fierce battle and he appeared before Justice Montagu on the 14th. of September where both he and Kavenagh were sentenced to death.
Within an hour of their sentences being carried out, both were reprieved and sentenced to imprisonment on Norfolk Island, an isolated penal settlement east of Sydney in the Pacific Ocean.

Kavenagh was eventually hung after another abortive escape attempt, but Cash seemed to see the error of his ways and resolved to become a model prisoner. In 1852 he was appointed a  Trustee  and given the responsibility of overseeing other prisoners. On the 24th of March 1854 he married a local woman, Mary Bennett. who worked as a domestic servant to one of the government officials.

When convict transportation ceased in 1853, a decision was made to close Norfolk Island and Cash received a  Ticket-Of-Leave  on the 19th. of September. He and Mary moved back to Hobart where he took up a post as gardener at the Government Domain in preference to that of Constable.

In 1855 they had a son, Martin, and on the 24th of June, 1856 he was granted a conditional pardon which was confirmed as a full pardon on the 11th. July 1863. He was now 55 years of age and a free man.

For the next four years they lived in New Zealand where they did fairly well and upon returning to Hobart they bought 60 acres at Glenorchy on the banks of the Montrose Creek. It was while retired here that Cash wrote his memoirs published under the title of  Martin Cash, the bushranger of Van Diemans Land in 1843 .

Pete Wilkins 2003

Thomas and Susannah Shone - Life at "Stanton"

The Shones  success as farmers did not escape the attention of bushranger Martin Cash.
This Irish convict had been at Norfolk Island, escaped from Port Arthur, and
ranged around the southern parts of the Midlands and Hobart with his gang members Jones and Cavanagh.

Cash s Cave remains in the heavily bushed gully in the hills behind Stanton, and it was from here that he watched the property until, in February 1843, during an afternoon social gathering, he and his gang kidnapped a neighbouring farmer, James Bradshaw, and used his identity to gain entrance to the house.

Once inside, they herded the family, servants and friends into the living room, until 16 people were at gunpoint.

Removing valuables from their person and from the house, the Cash gang made off back into the hills, eventually being captured finally in August of that year, after a celebrated foot chase through the streets of Hobart.

This robbery is celebrated in Cash s autobiography, and is the subject of a chapter of Frank Clunes  book, Martin Cash (1955).
An interesting postscript to the event is that, during the enquiry into the robbery, the presiding magistrate decided that  Thomas Shone is not a fit and proper person to be supervising convict labour, and they will therefore be removed.

Shone understandably petitioned his innocence, the crux of the matter seeming to be that the powers-that-be suspected Shone of at worst complicity, at best sympathy, with the bushrangers, and that he was not deemed to have put up a sufficient fight during the robbery.

Shone protested that he and his family and friends were at gunpoint, the bushrangers took many things of value from the house, and what else was he supposed to do?!   Authority won out, and Shone lost his convicts.

From the story regarding Martin Cash.  This time he held up the Woolpack Inn

Truth (Perth, WA : 1903 - 1931), Saturday 10 February 1912, page 10


(The following chapter got accidentally pigeon-holed, and lost the "number of its mess."

We left Martin Cash and his companions preparing for an assault under arms at the Woolpack Inn. At 8 o'clock at night they divested themselves of all unnecessary encumbrances, and planted their swags about a quarter of a mile from the scene of intended action. They took the nearest road to the house, and, reaching there, "bailed up" all within, Mrs Stoddart, with her two sons, both grown up young men, together with three others who happened to be drinking in the bar at the time. Mrs Stoddart evinced the utmost alarm, but Cash assured her that any person who did not offer resistance would have nothing to fear. One of the sons sarcastically exclaimed, "Oh, mother, never mind; it will be all right by and bye."
 Cash translated this as meaning that he knew that five constables were in the neighbourhood, and would presently be called into action and Cash asked if he were the master of the premises, when the young man admitted that his father was absent. Jones by this time had possession of the bar, but there was little chance of his abusing the trust, as he was strictly temperate. Kavanagh was standing at the bush-road door leading to the bar while Cash took up a station which enabled him to keep an eye upon his prisoners; he was also able to keep in view what was going on outside the house. Observing a smile upon one of the Stoddart boys, the idea flashed upon Cash that the constables were not far off. and in crisp language he told the lad that he had better look after his own household, as the constables upon whom he appeared to rely might not be able to-defend themselves.

 There was a hut about 50 yards in front of the Woolpack which belonged to Mrs Stoddart. and Cash enquired who was the occupier. She replied that she had no men there, on which Jones and Kavanagh were sent over to capture any persons that might be there. He had no sooner given the order than he saw people moving up towards the house, and, calling upon his mates to prepare, Cash advanced to the front, and was challenged, and told to stand. Cash obeyed, until he could clearly make out the person who gave the order-and who still continued to advance, accompanied by four or five others, when, raised his gun. Cash fired, as he said, in self defence, and a moment after one of the party lay stretched upon the ground. In this time Cash was between two fires, and his mates, who happened to be five or six paces in the rear, had discharged, and, while reloading his piece, Cash addressed some words to his mates, but not receiving an answer, he concluded they had returned to the house, but moving up to the verandah he found that they were not inside.

The smoke having cleared away, the thought now occurred to Cash that Jones and Kavanagh might either be dead or disabled, and hastily retracing his steps to the scene of action, could not find any trace of them. He once more returned to the house, where he found the inmates couched in different corners of the room, apparently intent upon their own safety. One of the Stoddart boys being concealed behind the angle of the chimney. Cash warned him that he would shoot the first person who resisted. Cash returned to the front of the house, and remained for about five minutes with his gun levelled, expecting every moment to see one or both of his mates, but, as they did not make their appearance. Cash returned to the bar, and, shouldering a keg containing about three gallons of brandy, returned to the spot where the swags were planted.

Here he found Kavanagh and Jones unhurt, both, to his mind, having shown the white feather, as did the constables after one of their number had been wounded. They excused themselves for leaving Cash by saying that they did not know that he had determined to stand; had they (Jones and Kavanagh) known it they would have remained to stand by him after the first fire. The brandy keg, however, smoothed over all difficulties.

After drinking a glass each they held a council of war as to the next campaign, and made themselves as comfortable as possible for the night. Next morning Kavanagh took charge of the provender and the party retraced their steps towards the Dromedary. Cash points out that neither he nor his mates were ever under the influence of liquor in the bush. They had full and undisputed possession of several public-houses, but never gave way to intemperance.

On starting in the morning they came across a shepherd who was perfectly well acquainted with the engagement at The Woolpack, and while taking some refreshment he informed the trio that the constable who headed the party had been wounded by the first shot, and was lying in a very precarious state; also that another had received a ball in the fleshy part of the thigh, but that none were killed, a fact which gave Cash great relief. The shepherd stated that he had arrived at the Woolpack half an hour after the trio had left, and that Mrs Stoddart and the family had been under the impression that Jones and Kavanagh had been killed or wounded, as they only saw Cash, return. As a matter of fact, the police reported a desperate encounter with armed bushrangers, in which the notorious Martin Cash had received a deadly wound; as Cash puts it, if it were so, why did they not secure his person; there were five of them to do it. The shepherd drank freely of the brandy. For reasons of his own, Cash allowed him to indulge his thirst to the utmost, and, as he would be unable to articulate for some hours, Cash left him alone in his glory.

The trio continued their journey for the next three days, and at the end of that time they found themselves at Mr Cawthorn's, at the foot of the Dromedary. The larder now required replenishing, and they resolved to apply to Mr Cawthorn for some little assistance, it being then 5 o'clock in the afternoon. They took up position in proximity to the house in order to take observations, in a few minutes they saw a party of seven or eight constables making their exit from the premises, but whether they saw the bushrangers or not Cash could not say, but as they continued their journey, Cash's party did not interfere with them, in any case, they were not more than one hundred yards from the house when Cash and party invaded it. Kavanagh and Jones entered the houses while Cash took up a position at the door to watch proceedings. They had very little difficulty in securing the inmates, all seeming perfectly at ease in respect to their personal safety, the reputation of the trio being at this time well established. The inmates gave as little trouble as possible, and in that respect the bushrangers were reciprocal. After taking only what they absolutely needed, Cash and party took their leave, and when on the road, Cash informed his mates that he should have the pleasure of introducing them to an old acquaintance of his who lived at the Dromedary, named "Mrs B-- n," and that in all probability when there, they might see Mrs Cash..............................

 Cash the trio found Mr. and Mrs. B n at home, with other members of the family, spent a very pleasant evening chatting over events of the past. Early next morning. B n was on her "way to town for a fresh supply of necessities and bearing a note of instructions to Mrs. Cash.................

Bushranger Michael Howes

Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Saturday 22 November 1873, page 3
Illustrated by a Sketch of the Career of Michael Howe, "The last and worst of the Bushrangers."    Written by J. E. Calder.    (Continued.]
They had hardly settled themselves in the woods of New Norfolk, before they took steps to settle their little misunderstanding with Mr. Dennis McCarthy, for the part he had taken in the late attack on them, which they were in no mood to let him off for, particularly as he had caused them in their own defence to commit an act which they would have much sooner avoided, and that was sure to bring them to the gallows in the end, for they did not look on death as certain for ordinary bushranging, and even though it were a capital offence, it was by no means always thus punished either in Davey's or Sorell's times, unless accompanied by murder or extreme violence, of which there were many examples. They therefore proceeded to this gentleman's house as quickly as possible after their return to New Norfolk.
But the many confederates (or as Howe used to term them facetiously his "correspondents") whom they had in this place, were now too much alarmed on their own account, by a recent Proclamation, which offered large rewards, not only for the apprehension of the bushrangers, but for their own also, to care about renewing acquaintance with them just now, and the robbers seemed to have lacked intelligence of how matters stood in the district, when they most wanted it, and they were egregiously deceived in consequence.
The night was cloudy and very dark, when they went forward from their camp, on their mission of evil, to punish Mr. McCarthy. That they had no intention of murdering him is certain, for he was absent from the district at the moment, and they know it ; but they probably meant to pay him off in the same fashion that they had just before served Mr. Humphrey.
Tho district of Now Norfolk was then much more scantly settled over than now, and as the King's highways wore not pleasant places to be on after dark, no one was out at this hour. Whitehead and his party therefore reached McCarthy's residence quite unobserved by any one, and more in mischief perhaps than earnest, announced their arrival by sending a shower of bullets through one of the windows, (for in McCarthy's absence there was no one there whom they cared about hitting.)
However, one of the balls that was shot a little too low, slightly grazed one of the inmates. But very little idea had Whitehead who those inmates were, who were none else than their old enemies the soldiers, a small party of whom were put up there in McCarthy's absence, and who were just then engaged at cards. Unexpected as this challenge was, the men within did not lose their presence of mind, but seizing their muskets, rushed out and were amongst them in less time than I can toll it in, and before the others could reload. Coming out of a light room into utter darkness, they hardly knew where their opponents stood, but ventured a rally at random at them, and the leader Whitehead was shot down, mortally wounded, but whether by the military or one of his own people, who in the dark, mistook him for a soldier, as ho was reconnoitring the promises, is uncertain.
Stunned and confounded by tho unexpected appearance of the soldiers, and with their pieces uncharged, tho bushrangers made off in a body, all except Howe, who had now a horrid task to perform, which in virtue of an old understanding that existed between these two worthies, Whitehead and himself, ho remained behind to perform.
However little reverence such men as those may be thought to have had for truth, and the observance of obligations, they were found to attach importance to oaths made amongst themselves. The fear of the derision of their comrades, in case of failing through faint-heartedness, probably kept them up to the mark.
These two men had sworn to each other, that whichever fell first, the survivor should perform the dreadful office of cutting off and removing the other's head, so that tho body not being recognisable, the captor might be defrauded of his reward, and there were now fifty guineas on each of this party.
Whitehead lived just long enough to pass the preconcerted signal that all was up with him, "Take my watch," meaning his own head) and then in the language of scripture, he gave up the ghost.
Favoured by the intense darkness of the night, Howe fulfilled his pledge ; and the headless body of the impenitent man, remained where it fell, for the military to dispose of as they chose ; and it was conveyed to Hobart Town, where it actually underwent the ceremony, so vain in this instance, of' a public execution, by being gibbetted on Hunter's Island, where it hung for more than a twelvemonth.
Many other criminals were thus exposed on this little rock, then a conspicuous object in Sullivan's Cove (on which Hobart Town fronts), until it was swallowed up, so to speak, in the "Old Wharf;" till public disgust was so aroused by the barbarous and never absent spectacle, that in June of 1816, they were all removed to another part of the coast, a little further south, where they were stuck up again like scarecrows, and with about the same admonitory effect.
Howe bore off Whitehead's head, but seems to have dropped it in the dark, for I read in the Gazette of the 13th of December, 1817, that it had just been found, and circumstances were such as to leave no doubt about its identity.
Howe rejoined his companions, and hence forward acted as their leader, their number now reduced to [seven] by the death of Whitehead.
They now found it necessary to evacuate Now Norfolk again, and betook themselves to the Tea-tree Brush, a few miles off, which, as its name implies, was then a place of thickets, where they hoped to rest unobserved for a little. But those everlasting tormentors of theirs, tho soldiers, soon winded them again, and pounced quite unexpectedly on the hut they occupied, but when there were only two of them at home, the rest being away on some evil business no doubt.
The soldiers were in it at once ; but thoughtlessly leaving no guard at the door, tho others flew out, directly the last of the soldiers was within, and running into tho scrub, wore out of sight directly. The disappointed assailants fired after them, but ineffectually, and both escaped their pursuers, but only to fall into the hands of another party of soldiers a few days afterwards at Kangaroo Point, whither they had wandered. They proved to be Richard McGuire and Hugh Burne.
Howe and tho rest soon afterwards returned homewards, but finding that soldiers were in possession of their wig-wam, of course, came not near it again.
A Court Martial, never tardy in its movements or decisions, was soon assembled to try McGuire and Burne, and made short work with them, and sentenced both to die, for aiding in the deaths of Messieurs Carlisle and O'Birne, and their bodies were added to the other horrors of Hunter's Island.
What became of Howe and his party after the misadventures of the last few days, that cost them three lives, I am at a loss to say ; and a gap occurs in their history, which neither the Gazettes at my command, or other authorities enable me to fill up. But that they remained quiet for a few months seems certain, for no trace of them can be discovered in the publications alluded to.
It cannot now be ascertained in what way Howe and his companions supported themselves at this time, nor where they lay in concealment ; but Colonel Sorell says, they had secret connexions nearly everywhere, whose connivance they had abundant means of securing ; so it must have gone hard with them, if they could not have lived a few months, and well too, amongst these friends, without resorting to house-breaking, or robbery on the highways.
But in whatever way they occupied themselves whilst in hiding, they tired of it at last, and took again to their old practices with such ardour, as shewed that they had not passed their seclusion in a penitential manner ; and they turned up again in the beginning of the antipodal summer of 1816, largely reinforced in numbers, from five, when they went into retirement, to thirteen, when they emerged from it. This coalition took place between June and August.
The Gazette of the 3rd August, 1816, thus announces the alarming fact, with its usual disregard of the proprieties of orthography and grammar :
" We have this afternoon received information that the banditti (consisting of Michael Howe, Peter Septon, James Geary, George Jones and Richard Collyer) which have been so long in the Woods of this Island, committing. Murders and robberies, has joined with those Desperadoes that are Advertised in the front of this Paper which now consists to the number of thirteen."
These new allies were Matthew Keegan, Peter Franks, Thomas Garland, John Chapman, William Johnson, John Parker, Emanuel Levy, and George Watts. But in three or four weeks the party dwindled down to ten, by the jibbing of Johnson, Watts, and Levy.
Howe commenced this campaign with his usual vigour, and committed several robberies, Messieurs Stanfield, Pitt, Stynes, and Troy being amongst his first victims. Tho establishments of several others also fared tho same. These feats followed each other with such rapidity as to baffle all pursuit. Acting with customary rapacity, he cleared out their premises of everything he could carry off; often taking property which, as it could be of no use personally to any of the party, must have been seized for trafficking only with his "correspondents "
None of these pillagings wore attended with personal violence of any kind. Howe even let Mr. Pitt off lighter than one would have thought, ' considering that ho stood well up in the police force of the colony, every member of which he hated as the devil hates holy water. But Howe disliked unnecessary violence, and though he sometimes threatened it, using hard words and black looks, ho never would permit it except in self-defence, or when, according to his style of thinking, he believed his victims deserved it, as in the cases of McCarthy and Humphrey ; and though he often made their ladies of the places he visited, surrender every-thing they had, except what they stood in, they were otherwise treated most respectfully. His followers were quite habituated to this, and I will hero quote an example of it from the Gazette of the 22nd February, 1817.
Three of the party were at this time separated from the main body, and like Abraham not caring to live in the country of his kinsman Lot, went into the North, and were soon briskly at work in the districts about Launceston. A gentleman escorting two ladies, was travelling westerly from that town, and had reached a place then, known as the Black Snake, twenty miles from L'ton, when " they descrybed," says the Gazette, "three men, which they supposed to be part of the guard which Major Stewart had kindly directed to accompany the carts ; but on their nearer approach, they perceived them to be three bushrangers, named Sopton, Jones, and Brown.
These unhappy creatures, fearful of any information reaching tho Settlement, or the parties which now guard it, conducted the district and their Guide to a farm-house, where they detained them during the night.
It is gratifying for us to remark, that these outlaws behaved in the most becoming manner, having refused to take any refreshment till the ladies had done ; and even led their horses the next day over the difficult part of the New River, known by the name of Macquarie's Crossing place," where they left them, when out of danger, having more important business on hand than to act as "Squires of Dames" any longer, namely, to make a domiciliary visit to Messieurs T. Archer and R. Dry, both of whose houses they fleeced without loss of time.
To return to Howe; after the robberies of Stanfield and others, the gang having roused the Government into activity again, found it expedient to get out of the way once more : and whilst in concealment they must have been rejoined by their polite companions from the North, from whom they probably received such accounts of the fatness of the land, as determined them to visit it, and judge for themselves.
The settlers of the north, had suffered pretty considerably from bushrangers, having several gangs of their own roaring amongst them. But these wore comprised of potty fellows only, who had none of the notoriety of Howe's people ; and all were on the alert directly they knew they had crossed tho country, and were settled amongst them. The commandant, Major Stewart, thus forewarned, prepare to meet them. The mention of Howe was enough for him ; and the Launceston portion of the 40th, though somewhat disorganised and unruly, snuffed the battle from afar, like the war horse of scripture, and were ready for the enemy whenever and wherever he appeared, so Howe could not remain long on this new scene, as tho pursuit was soon too hot for him ; but he remained long enough to make wreck of one establishment.
On the 7th of November, 1816, Howe and his party presented themselves at the residence of Mr. D. Rose, which they assaulted in their usual menacing manner just after dark, and were masters of the place in a moment. Mr. Rose had some friends staying with him at the time, who had just before this arrived from Ceylon, to settle in Tasmania, and they too had to submit to the hard fate of their host, and all wore plundered most impartially, for Howe used to boast that in all his exactions, he had nothing to reproach himself for, on the score of making fish of one and flesh of another, so fleeced  them all round of whatever they had, making no invidious distinctions. The ladies too suffered just like the rest, and when he went away there was not tho value of one shilling amongst the whole of them, except the clothes they had on them. Money, jewels, trinkets, watches, clothes, and goodness knows what else, all went into their capacious knapsacks, which they loaded till they could scarcely lift them, and then decamped to the joy of all, who were glad to see them disappear, without taking their lives as well as chattels.
The commandant of Launceston, though remiss enough at times, and seemingly pretty nearly as unruly as his men (see note at the end) behaved on this occasion like an active magistrate Heading a strong party of the 40th he went after Howe's party himself. But as that worthy had be good a start before a message could be delivered at Launceston and tho soldiers reach Rose's house, and managed his retreat so quietly, his men were far enough away, before the real pursuit began  and no tidings could be had of them anywhere. There-fore after a most fatiguing and exhausting search, that extended over several days, the commandant returned to his quarters again.
But Howe soon came to the surface again, a hundred miles from the scene of his last adventure, having after more than a week's travel, reached the long and narrow valley of Bagdad safely, but I fancy by some unusual route, otherwise he must have fallen into the net of the fowler, which Captain Nairn, who managed military matters for Colonel Davey in the south, had set for him everywhere, that is, as far as the military force at command permitted ; for Howe's party was now hunted after high and low, like noxious animals, that are to be got rid of at any cost. Soldiers in fatigue dress, in uniform, and in disguise, were on the look-out for him where ever it was thought there was a chance of trap-ping him ; but he was to well informed, to fall into their snares just yet.
Having learned that there was a valuable lot of merchandise in transit between the " two settlements," namely, Hobart Town and Launceston, and that it would pass through Bagdad on a particular day, he took post amongst the .woods near to Haye's residence, resolved to intercept it.
He listened anxiously for the sound of wheels all day of  the 17th of November when he expected its arrival, but that day closed without it arriving ; for through some mishap, the proprietor of the goods, Mr. W. T. Stocker, was delayed on the road for twenty-four hours ; for which Howe, when they met, like other offended dignitaries, demanded explanations, which not quite satisfying him, he gave him such a rating, as the mercantile man never heard in his life before : for Howe could not stop long anywhere just now, and the loss of a day might be fatal to him. But towards night of the 18th, the rumbling of carts on the unformed road was heard ; when Howe, something after the manner of one of the heroes of the Beggar's Opera, summoned his men to
" Haste to the road ;
Hark ! I hear the sound of coaches."
or more properly, Mr. Stocker's carts, which drove up with their precious freight to Mr. Hayes' house, where they were to remain for tho night. They carried not only several passengers, but what Howe's party cared much more about, that is, just such wares as they wanted, of which in the end they took by far the best share, and valued, according to Mr. Stocker's published declaration of his losses, at just £255 Is. 0d., " at prime coat ;'' the articles taken, of which there is a lengthy enumeration in the Gazette, being of tho most varied description.
The bushrangers had plenty of conversation with the travellers, and. surprised them by the accuracy of their information of the movements of the Government, particularly in matters relating to themselves, and generally also of what was going on in Hobart Town; and then finished this pleasant parley, by taking old Stocker's watch from him.
They are charged on this occasion, with adding wanton destruction of property to robbery, in one of them sending a bullet into a keg of rum, which was all lost. But it is more probable that Howe thought it best to remove it out of his companions way ; for though Sorell says they were very temperate men, still most who were harassed as they were, and ever on the march, might possibly have liked to solace themselves for once in a way, with a nip or two of it, which it was on all accounts most prudent to prevent.
Oddly enough the chief constable of the territory, was that very night enjoying the hospitality of Hayes ; and was in the house at the moment when the bushrangers, eleven in number, rushed into it. This praiseworthy conservator of the public peace, having a pretty good notion who the intruders were, took to his heels and ran off as hard as he could, till he was quite out of danger and wind also, leaving his host and the travellers, to make any terms they liked best with the enemy.

[To be continued.]

The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954) Thursday 20 November 1873 p 3 

The following is an account of a trial in the Supreme Court regarding Thomas Shone and the bushranger Martin Cash, who held up and robbed Thomas and his Family, and James Bradshaw in 1843

R. v. Wilson and others
Supreme Court of Van Diemen's Land
Montagu J., 22 April 1843
Source: Hobart Town Advertiser, 28 April 1843
            Before the business of the trials began, the Attorney-General brought to the notice of his Honor, an application which had been forwarded to him by Mr. Shone, in reference to the expences of his daughter, as a witness in the case of the “Queen v. Pratt.”
His Honor tartly replied, that it was not a judicial matter; he declined to say anything on the subject.
            John Wilson, John Smith, and James Simpson, the three runaways from Brown’s River, were charged with burglariously entering the house of the Rev. E. W. Gibbs, at Brackman’s Bay, on the night of the 6th of March, and stealing therefrom a gold watch of the value of £20 and some other articles.
            The case was simply as follows:- The inmates of the house having retired to rest, with the exception of Mr. Gibbs, that gentleman heard a knock at the back door, between 9 and 10 o’clock; on enquiring who was there, a voice answered “Jones,” and said, that he wanted to see Mr. Gibb’s assigned servant, Henry Bowden; witness called Bowden up and told him to see what the person wanted, and, going to the door for that purpose, the three prisoners rushed into the house, and, after tying Mr. Gibbs’s three servants, they kept him a close prisoner in the parlour, while they ransacked the house; they were there about two hours, and took away a gold watch, three silver spoons, and one or two other things. The prisoner Wilson was formerly in the prosecutor’s service and Mr. Gibbs swore positively to the three men.
            Master Robert Gibbs and Henry Bowden were called to substantiate Mr. Gibbs’s testimony; and the Attorney General called Thomas Clarke, one of Mr. Manley’s servants, who so meritoriously assisted in capturing the robbers, when his Honor said that he could not see why so many witnesses should be dragged before the Court; the expence attending such a proceeding was very great, and the Government had been lately complaining of it; in this case an expense of some £20 would be incurred, while the evidence of Mr. Gibbs, and of the man, who opened the door, was all that was necessary. The Magistrate, through caution, might have deemed it proper to examine all the witnesses, but it was for the Attorney-General to use his discretion, as to the witnesses that might be required. His Honor threw this out as a suggestion for the consideration of the Attorney General, and expressed his regret in having to do so.
            The Attorney-General, as public prosecutor, was placed in a very awkward position by his Honor’s observations. How frequently did it happen where prisoner were defended by Counsel, that he claimed to have all the witnesses called that were examined before the Magistrate, and if they were not produced, to ask why such and such evidence was not produced? The learned advocate had known prisoners acquitted for that very circumstance, and he felt that the public would regard this remark of his Honor in the light of a censure upon himself as the public prosecutor.

 It was a principle in law, and it was also due to a prisoner, to have all the witnesses called that were examined before the magistrate, in order to give him an opportunity to cross examine them, even if they were not examined by the crown. Upon these grounds, he, the Attorney-General, felt called upon to offer these remarks, and if he had been irregular in doing so, he begged his Honor’s pardon for the course he had pursued, but, in a community where censure was so freely dealt out, and where his conduct was likely to be misconceived, even by a mere legal objection taken by the learned Judge, he thought it a duty to himself to make these observations. The learned gentleman concurred with his Honor, that in the present case, it was not necessary to call so many witnesses; there had been nine summoned, when three would have proved the case, but the magistrate thinking, probably, that the prisoners would have been capitally indicted, supposed all the witnesses would have been required, and had the prisoners been so indicted, in his, the Attorney-Generals view of the case, some of them would have been wasted.
            His Honor disclaimed any intention to convey any censure to the crown prosecutor, but merely to throw out a suggestion. The magistrates here were not so experienced as they were at home, and unless the Attorney-General dealt with the dispositions as he thought fit, grant expences what he incurred. If his Honor were Attorney-General, he should, in the exercise of his discretion, and if he thought proper, strike out all the witnesses except the prosecutor, who ought to have the onus of proving his case. His Honor was bound to allow all the witnesses their reasonable expences, and it mattered not to him how many warrants he signed, but the Government was complaining of the expence, and he had received a letter, not long ago, upon that very subject.
            The Attorney General, with great suavity, here said:- “I thought your Honor said, in reference to Mr. Shone’s case, that the payment of the witnesses expences was not a judicial matter?”
            His Honor:- It is not a judicial, but a ministerial matter; will you ask this man (the witness) any more questions, Mr. Attorney?
            The Attorney-General:- No, your Honor; nor shall I call any other witnesses after what has passed.
            The prisoners were then found guilty, and sentenced to be transported for life.
* * * *
            The trial for the day being concluded, the Attorney-General produced a copy of the regulations, relating to the payment of the witnesses expences, and requested his Honor to permit them to be made more public, in order to enable persons to apply for their expences in a proper manner, as from the applications which the learned advocate had received, there seemed to be some misunderstanding on the subject.
            His Honor very warmly censured the manner in which the Attorney-General had brought the matter thus publicly before the Court. If he had wanted to complain of any officer of that Court, or of himself, his course would have been to proceed by affidavit, the present proceeding was vindictive and unnecessarily irritating, and calculated to excite public agitation, in the usual manner, customary in this Colony. His Honor also intimated that the present course was intended to cast odium upon the Court and its officers, and odium upon the Judge.

    The Attorney-General most decidedly disclaimed the slightest intention of insulting the Court; his object was in obviate some difficulties that seemed at present to exist in the obtaining of witnesses expences.
After some further discussion, which was carried on with considerable warmth, on the part of the learned Judge, and with great firmness, but proper respect, on the part of the Attorney-General, his Honor asked for the communications which had been forwarded by Mr. Shone, which he had no sooner glanced at, that he exclaimed that all this had been done for the purpose of having it in the newspapers! His Honor could see, he said, very clearly through the whole affair! He then refused to make any allowance in the case; and, to an observation from the Attorney-General, relative to memorizing the Govenor, his Honor said, they might memoralize whom they ple and write to whom they thought proper; it was for him to do his duty in the best way he could
Source: Tasmanian and Australian Advertiser, 26 May 1843
To the Editor
            SIR, - Understanding that certain of my neighbours have forwarded a requisition to the Sheriff, to request him to convene a public meeting, to take into consideration my conduct when the bushrangers were at my house, and also the subsequent proceedings, I have to request, that you will announce publicly, that as far as I am concerned I am most willing and anxious that my conduct on that occasion should be fully discussed, and if the public deem me deserving censure, that I may be doomed to linger under the insult and injury I have received from the Local Government.
            As, however, I have forwarded a petition to the Secretary of State, praying for compensation, and as I therein stated I meant to publish the same, I request you will insert the petition and documents as an advertisement in your next three numbers - I am, Sir, your humble servant,
                                                            THOMAS SHONE.
            The Humble Petition of Thomas Shone, of New Norfolk, in the Island of Van Diemen’s Land, Farmer
            RESPECTFULLY SHOWETH. -        That your petitioner arrived in the colony in the year 1816, and forthwith took possession of a location of land, granted to him by Governor Macquarie; and petitioner has since that period received other grants, from subsequent Governors, for improvements; and your petitioner, from 1818 till lately, resided peaceably on the land first granted to him.
            That your petitioner, from the period of his arriving in the colony, has, in addition to his free servants, always had under his charge convict servants, that have been assigned to him by the Local Government.
            That your petitioner has nearly three hundred acres of land in cultivation, large flocks of sheep, and also large herds of cattle, &c.
   That, from his first commencing as a farmer, your petitioner’s conduct towards his assigned servants has given satisfaction to the Government - there not being a single instance of censure recorded against him until the 2lst of March now last past.
            That, notwithstanding the large sum of money (upwards of five hundred thousand pounds, as your petitioner has been given to understand) that is annually expended by the Home Government for the safe custody and maintenance of the convicts - and upwards of thirty-five thousand pounds annually drawn from the colonial revenue for the protection of the colonists by means of the Police - and yet your petitioner avers that the colonists are not sufficiently protected, neither from the runaways from the various stations and road parties, who, having nothing to stake but their lives, not unfrequently escape from the penal settlement of Port Arthur.
            That, about four months since, three desperate characters, named Cash, Jones, and Kavenagh, escaped from Port Arthur, and forthwith commenced plundering, in a most systematical manner, the settlers in the districts of Brighton and New Norfolk, not unfrequently by drafts huddling together into one room from five to twenty persons, whom they have usually bound, and threatened with immediate death if the least resistance should be made; that armed bodies of free and convict constables have been used to pursuit of these men: that, on one occasion, five armed constables were stationed to protect an inn called “The Woolpack,” which the three bushrangers daringly gave notice that they intended to attack: and that, nevertheless, these desperate men did attack the inn, and bound the inmates together, and then fired upon the armed constables, who hurriedly returned the fire, when one of the bushrangers was seen by a constable to drop, from a bullet he received; yet with the advantage of five to two, the armed constables almost immediately ran way, when one received a wound in the back, and another a wound in the fleshy part of the leg.
            That, some short time after the attack at “The Woolpack” - namely, on the evening of the 22nd of February, your petitioner, with his wife, and a friend whose age is sixty six , were sitting in an inner room of his residence, when a knock was given at the front door: that your petitioner’s wife went to open the door, but, previously to so doing, asked who was there, whereupon a Mr. Bradshaw, a neighbour, who was compelled by the bushrangers to answer, replied, and, his voice being recognised, the door was opened, and your petitioner called to him and his party to come into the inner room: that forthwith to your petitioner’s surprise, Mr. Bradshaw and his servants, all tied together, were abruptly thrust into the room, and directly ordered to sit down on the floor, and were then told, by one of the three armed men, that the first that moved should be shot: that the three men were each armed with a double-barrel fowling piece and a brace of pistols: that, soon after Mr. Bradshaw and his men had been brought in, one of the bushrangers left the room, and shortly returned with your petitioner’s servants - namely, four free men, one ticket-of-leave, and two assigned convicts, all bound together, who were also compelled to sit on the floor, and instant death threatened to the first who moved: that again, shortly afterwards, your petitioner’s son and daughter, and a young lady and two gentlemen, visitors, arrived in a vehicle from Hobart Town, when the bushrangers hearing their approach one of them went out and compelled them also to come into the room and sit down, the same threat being held out to them as to the others: that, during the whole of the time the bushrangers remained in the house, one of them was stationed at the door of the room, and had his finger on the trigger of his fowling-piece, and a second was at his side, who had his piece ready also for immediate service: that one of your petitioner’s servants, talking rather boldly, was told that, if he again spoke or moved, he would be certainly shot, and that nothing but the presence of the females had then saved his life: that your petitioner and nearly all the inmates were robbed, and property taken from the dwelling, in all, to the value of from seventy-five to one

hundred pounds: that your petitioner was taken by surprise: that there was not a fire-arm or any weapon of defence in the house: that, had either your petitioner, his son, or his aged friend, or the two visitors - had either or all of these five attempted a rush to secure the bushrangers, the attempt would probably have terminated in instant death to every one. Your petitioner requests your Lordship will be graciously pleased to peruse the accompanying documents. [See A. and B.]
            That Mr Bradshaw and your petitioner made depositions of the robbery before Thomas Mason, Esq., Police Magistrate, of the New Norfolk district, who communicated with the chief authority, in consequence of which your petitioner, without any reference being made to him or explanation called for, received a letter from the Colonial Secretary, wherein the Colonial Secretary informs your petitioner that he is directed by His Excellency to acquaint your petitioner that all that were present during the robbery were deficient in firmness, in moral conduct, and natural courage, and guilty of culpable indifference to the public safety, if not desirous of favoring the depredations of the bushrangers [see C.], and your petitioner especially is denounced as a person unsafe to be entrusted with assigned convicts; and as your Lordship will observe by the letter of Thomas Mason, Esq., [see D.] dated the day after that of the Colonial Secretary’s, your petitioner’s assigned servants were forthwith removed.
            That a portion of the property stolen from petitioner and his wife and daughter was found by the police in Hobart Town in the possession of the wife of one of the bushrangers and of a man named Pratt, and your petitioner his wife, and [line missing] prosecute them as receivers. That in consequence of your petitioner’s wife and daughter identifying the stolen property, your petitioner was threatened by the bushrangers. That petitioner received a copy of a letter addressed to him by the three men. That this letter was written at the establishment of Charles Kerr, Esq., of Dunrobin, whose men they had tied together, and whose house they were then plundering. That your petitioner has not seen the original letter that was addressed to him, it having been seized by some one without his authority, but the annexed document [see E.] is in the handwriting of Thomas Mason, Esq., the Police Magistrate of the district, and petitioner verily believes purports to be a copy of that sent to him by the bushrangers.
            That when at Mr. Kerr’s and other places the bushrangers frequently swore that they would destroy your petitioner and his family if he prosecuted the woman. That from Mr. Kerr’s they selected silk gowns and other female apparel, expressly as they said for your petitioner’s wife and grown up daughter. That the husband of the woman declared that if your petitioner was “the means of getting rid of his wife, he would take petitioner’s wife and daughter into the bush in lieu of her.”
            That on the 21st April Pratt was tried in Hobart Town, and your petitioner’s daughter identified a portion of the property stolen, but Pratt, owing to legal difficulties, was acquitted; that the wife of the man Cash was on the 22nd April brought into the Supreme Court before His Honor Algernon Montagu the Puisne Judge, and was then and there discharged by proclamation; that your petitioner applied in the usual manner for the expenses incurred by his daughter, who was summoned and was in attendance as a witness to identify the stolen property in possession of Pratt, but His Honor would not allow such expenses to be paid.
            Your petitioner respectfully requests a perusal of that portion which is marked of the annexed newspaper called the Hobart Town Advertiser [see F.] and which newspaper is not opposed to the Government, but, on the contrary, is the only publication in the colony under the influence of Sir John Franklin’s Government.

    That up to this date the bushrangers are at large, so that your petitioner has been compelled to send his wife and daughter from the country, and your petitioner’s friends believe he and his family are not safe in remaining in the neighbourhood of his own property. That although your petitioner’s stacks and barns are insured against fire, such insurance your petitioner is informed does not protect him from any act of the bushrangers. That your petitioner has been and still is unable personally to superintend the cultivation of his farm or the protection of his stock, and with the threat held over himself, his family and property, no one will even remain on the premises unless by compulsion.
            That your petitioner following the advice of his friends intends at a future period not very far distant giving publicity to this petition in the colony, and entreats your Lordship to believe, not out of any disrespect to the high office your Lordship holds, nor for one moment imagining that should this document ever reach your Lordship that you would deny your petitioner that justice which his case demands, but for the purpose of your petitioner clearing himself among his fellow colonists (by the publication of the annexed documents) of the stigma cast upon his character by the chief authority of his being deficient in firmness and in moral and natural courage, and of being a supporter of the bushrangers, and so degraded in the estimation of the Government as even to be unfit to have charge of assigned servants. And in order by giving publicity on the spot to this petition to your Lordship your petitioner may openly defy refutation or contradiction.
            And your petitioner humbly draws your Lordship’s attention to the length of time that is required in appealing to the secretaries of State, and that however just and honorable Her Majesty’s Secretaries of State may have been and may continue to be, still from the circumstance of such appeals as the present being generally accompanied with secret exparte explanations from the authorities chiefly interested, the Honorable the Secretaries of State have unfortunately hitherto been too frequently misled, and have often times indicted still deeper injury on the applicants seeking justice through them.
            And your petitioner is without redress in the colony, and therefore trusts your Lordship will think proper that fair and reasonable compensation should be awarded to your petitioner; firstly, for the property stolen from his dwelling by the crown prisoners absconding from their place of punishment; secondly for the harsh and unjust deprivation of petitioner’s assigned servants; thirdly, for the serious direct expenditure in maintaining his family and self at a distance from home; and lastly, the indirect loss caused at your petitioner’s farm and stock stations in consequence of your petitioner’s absence - all of which loss your petitioner affirms is solely attributable to either the negligence the inefficiency, or the culpability of those whose duty it is to keep in security the doubly-convicted offender under punishment at Port Arthur.
            And your petitioner as in duty bound will ever pray, &c.
                                                            THOMAS SHONE
            Dated the twenty-sixth day of April one thousand eight hundred and forty three.
            We the undersigned free persons were present during various portions of the time when the bushrangers Cash, Kavenagh, and Jones attacked and remained in Mr. Shone’s house at the Back River. The whole of our party were unarmed. The bushrangers were thoroughly armed. Eleven of our party were bound, and obliged to sit on the floor. One fowling piece was always ready for the shoulder; and it would probably have been instant death to several, had any movement been made.

Were we to be placed in the same situation again, we should act as we then did. There was not a possibility of our taking them. We were five only untied, sitting on chairs, and each of the five could have been shot before any one could have reached the door, or before the men who were tied could have risen up from the floor.
            Had we been oversighted enough to have attempted a rush, the bushrangers possibly might have run away, but the probability is that every soul would have been put to death or wounded before they would have left the place.
            All that were present were:
Mr. Shone
Mrs. Shone
Christopher Jackson
Mr. Bradshaw                         )
Henry Ruff                               )           All tied together
John Pridmore                         )           and made to sit on
Thomas Sneed                         )           the floor.
Jeremiah Bailey          )                                                )
Richard Headney         )           Free                             )
Robert Bunker             )                                               )           Mr. Shone’s
Edward Knight                        )           Ticket-of         )           Servants
Benjamin Stoken                     )           leave               )
Charles Boswell         )           Assigned servants       )
Thomas Storey            )           taken away                  )
Miss Shone
Miss Carter
Mr. Thomas Allen Shone (under age)
Mr. Mackay
Mr. Ferguson (left the colony)

            Signed                         THOS. ALLEN SHONE
                                                MARY ANN SHONE
                                                CHRISTOPHER JACKSON
                                                JAMES BRADSHAW
                                                THOS. SNEED
                                                JEREMIAH BAILEY
                                                RICHARD HEADNEY
                                                ROBERT BUNKER
                                                ROBERT MACKAY
                                                MARGARET CARTER
            The above eleven with two ticket-of-leave and four assigned servants amounting with petitioner to eighteen, Mr. Ferguson (who has left the colony) making up the nineteen, the total

            The undersigned hereby certifies, that he (the undersigned) was on the bush road at the Back River, New Norfolk, with three of his servants, conveying a load of wheat to his residence; that he was sitting on the cart, and the men walking by its side, when suddenly three armed men came up from behind, and each presenting a fowling-piece at self and men, commanded us to halt; the undersigned and men were then tied together by one of the bushrangers, the other two keeping guard: that thus bound the undersigned and his servants were compelled to march in front to Mr. Shone’s house: that the undersigned whispering to his men that should there be any firing from Shone’s to fall down on their faces, one of the bushrangers said the undersigned had too much to say, and that he would soon settle accounts with him: the undersigned was compelled to answer when Mrs. Shone called to know who was there: that the undersigned has read that portion of Mr. Shone’s petition which describes what took place at his residence, and it is perfectly correct: that the undersigned that same night went over to the Police Magistrate and related what had occurred, and it was afterwards taken down in writing at the police-office: the undersigned also states that the bushranger who stood sentry at the door of the inner room, over him and the rest of the party, had his fowling-piece ready to fire the whole of the time, and never had but one double barrel gun in his hand ruing the time he guarded them.

                                                            JAMES BRADSHAW

            Colonial Secretary’s Office, 21st March, 1843
            SIR, - I am directed to acquaint you, that the Lieutenant-Governor has had before him the deposition of Mr. James Bradshaw, taken before the Police Magistrate at New Norfolk, relative to the robbery at your house by three armed bushrangers, on the 22nd of February last. After a perusal of the deposition, his Excellency is of opinion that the conduct of the whole party on the occasion alluded to was reprehensible in the highest degree, and calculated to increase the confidence of the bushrangers. His Excellency has observed, that in the first instance, six men were left with only one armed bushranger, and that subsequently there were fifteen men guarded by two bushrangers, of whom one had a run in each hand. His Excellency indeed cannot but be apprehensive that all the individuals concerned were influenced by a culpable indifference to the public safety, if not a desire to favor the depredations of these men, who were, it appears, permitted to plunder the house, without the slightest resistance being offered by those present, many of whom remained passively looking on.
            It must not be forgotten, that in allowing settlers to avail themselves of the services of the prisoners of the crown, it is the duty of the Government to take care that the charge thus delegated to private individuals, should be entrusted only to persons capable of maintaining that discipline from which it is of paramount importance that convicts should not be released, until they have given proofs of amendment; to maintain such discipline requires on the part of the master, not only moral conduct, but firmness, and that common amount of natural courage, the absence of which must excite contempt in the minds of the convicts.
            In the present instance, the Lieutenant-Governor considers that a lamentable deficiency of these qualities has been betrayed; and his Excellency is therefore of opinion that it can no longer be safe or proper to intrust to you the guardianship of convicts, and his Excellency has accordingly directed instructions to be issued for the immediate withdrawal of your assigned servants. -I am, sir, your obedient servant.
                                                            G. T. W. BOYES
            Mr. Thomas Shone, Back River,
            Police-office, New Norfolk, 22nd March, 1843
            The Lieutenant-Governor having directed that the prisoner servants assigned to Mr. Shone shall be withdrawn, Mr. Shone is requested to return the men to this office forthwith.
                                                            THOMAS MASON, P.M.

    Mr. Thomas Shone, Back River
            Mr. Shone, in consequence of my observing in the public journal of my wife being in custody, charged with having property in her possession belonging to you, and your wife swears positively to them, I hereby caution you not prosecute or cause to prosecute her, as in consequence of your so doing, we will visit you, and burn you, and all that belongs to you.
* * * *
            Colonial Secretary’s Office, 2nd May, 1843.
            SIR, - I am directed to acknowledge the receipt for your letter of the 22nd ultimo, applying for repayment of the expenses incurred by you on account of your daughter’s attendance as a witness on the trial of Pratt and Eliza Cash, and to acquaint you that the Lieutenant-Governor cannot interfere. - I am, Sir, your obedient servant.
                                                J.E. [???]
            Mr. Thomas Shone (of New Norfolk),
            Hobart Town

Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Friday 28 August 1936, page 5

Thrilling Adventures of Bushranger
EVENTFUL CAREER     (By Our Travelling Correspondent.)

On the 59th anniversary of the death  of Martin Cash, the bushranger of Van
Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in 1843, and on the eve of the centenary of his arrival in the colony, it may not be considered out of place to refer to the chequered career of this remarkable man. He was born in Enniscorthy, Wexford, Ireland, in 1808. His father ruined himself and others by extravagant and spendthrift habits, and through negligence and indifference as to the welfare of Martin and a younger son, their training devolved upon an indulgent mother.

Neglected education, irregular attendance at school, expulsion by three different masters through mischievous tendencies, and liberally supplied with pocket money, Martin contracted habits of dissipation, and spent the greater part of his time at, horse races and other places of amusement, until 18 years of age, when he unfortunately, became acquainted with a young woman, who resided with her mother and older sister in an obscure part of Enniscorthy, and earned a living by making straw hats and bonnets. They borrowed money from him, until his mother upbraided him for extravagance, as it was rapidly draining her resources: He followed this course of dissipation for 12 months, when an incident occurred which changed the whole course of his life.

Let Martin Cash tell the story. In his own words:

"It happened that, while drinking with a few of my companions, one of them informed me that a young man named Jessop, who lived in the neighbourhood, and whose parents were highly respectable, was then in company with my friend, and having previously heard that he frequently visited at her mother's, I was stung to madness with jealousy; and, resolving to have my revenge, I returned home caught up my gun, and at once proceeded to the house, and on looking through the window of the sitting-room I saw young Jessop in company with my Mary, having his arm around her waist Not waiting for any further proof' of her treachery, I stepped back a pace or two from the window, and fired at my rival, who instantly fell on the floor.

"The report of my piece attracted a number of people, and I was shortly after arrested, and placed in gaol. My relatives offered any amount of bail which was at once refused, and a few days after I was fully committed to take my trial at the ensuing assizes, was visited daily by my mother, who appeared to be in bad health owing, have no doubt, to my past folly and misconduct. Jessop remained under the care of the doctors. The ball, it appears, entered his breast and came out under the shoulder blade. They entertained but slight hopes of his recovery. My friends secured the services of the
ablest counsel, but the case was too clear, and on being tried I was found guilty, the jury strongly recommending me to mercy, but that being an attribute that never entered into the composition of Judge Pennefather, I was sentenced to seven years' transportation."


Notwithstanding that young Jessop presented a petition to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland on his behalf, signed by the leading men of the county, praying for a mitigation of tho sentence, the die was cast for Martin's forced exile from his native land. While lying in Cork gaol awaiting transportation word reached him of the death of his mother, causing him to lament bitterly that he was the cause of it. A few days later 170 convicts, with Cash among them, embarked in the Marquis of Hunt-ley tor Botany Bay, and reached Sydney on February 10, 1828, when they were drafted to Hyde Park barracks, the general depot from which they were selected as assigned servants. With some 18 others, Cash was sent to Richmond, his master being Mr. G. Bowman, who leased another farm on the Hunter River, where Martin was transferred three weeks later, and became a stock-rider for nine years.

John Boodle, who owned two valuable farms and 500 head of cattle, and had a station on Liverpool Plains, asked Cash to assist him and his brother to brand some cattle, which, unknown to Cash, had been stolen. While the branding was in progress two strangers came long, remained a few minutes, and departed. Upon Boodle informing him that the strangers knew the cattle did not belong to him, and that transportation to Norfolk Island was the penalty for this crime, Cash decided to leave the colony for Van Diemen's Land. Arriving at Sydney, he stayed at the Albion Inn, and sailed in the barque Francis Freeling for Hobart Town, paying £20 for a cabin passage for him-self and companion, and £5 for his horse, and arriving there on February 10. 1837.


Time and space preclude a full account of Cash's subsequent, career in Van Diemen's Land, where he soon got into trouble again, and eventually came be-fore John Price, of world-wide, fame, and a magistrate at Hobart.Town, who sentenced him to two years, in addition to his original seven years' sentence, and also to four years' imprisonment, with hard labour, at Port Arthur. Of his escape from there, with Kavanagh and Jones, who thus became his con-federates in crime, by way. of Eagle-hawk Neck, in December, 1842; the engagement at the Woolpack Inn, Gretna: the attack upon Captain Clark at or near the Hunting Ground, Kemp-ton, formerly Green Ponds; the night engagement at Salt Pan Plains near Tunbridge; the capture , and trial of Cash at Hobart in September, 1843; his transportation to Norfolk Island for life; and the restoration of his liberty about, eight years afterwards, all are well told by him in the story of life, published in 1870.

During his bush-ranging career Cash, appeared to be guilty of shooting only one man, Con-stable Winstanley, in Brisbane St., Hobart, near the old Commodore Inn, just before he was captured.
Cash concluded his narrative, as follows: "Some months before this period the Lieut.-Governor had received orders from the Secretary of State for the Colonies to break up the establishment at Norfolk Island, and consequently in the course of a few months I had the satisfaction of bidding adieu to the 'Island of Despair,' and returning to Van Diemen's Land, where I was appointed by the late estimable Mr. William E. Nairn to take charge of the Government Gardens. While here my wife (to whom he was married, by licence, at Norfolk Island) brought me a son, who is now growing into a young man, and who, I earnestly trust, may be more fortunate in his way through life than his father.

On resigning my situation I went to New Zealand, where I remained four years, after which I re-turned to Tasmania, and, having saved a little money, I purchased a farm at Glenorchy, where I have resolved to pass the remainder of my days in the calm and tranquil enjoyment of rural retirement."


A postscript at the end of his book records: "Martin Cash's resolve was faithfully carried out. For the remainder of his peaceful life he resided on his own small farm at Glenorchy, five miles from Hobart, where, known to all, and enjoying the goodwill of all. He died in August 27, 1877."

From "The Mercury" of Tuesday,  August : 28, 1877, we extract the fol -lowing, particulars from the account therein of the "Death of Martin Cash":

"The celebrated bushranger Martin Cash, died at his residence, Glenorchy, on Sunday last; "We learn that Cash went to the Lord Rodney Hotel, New Wharf, on the evening of the 10th inst.,
and informed the landlord, Mr. Samuel Weir, that, in consequence of a severe illness, he had applied for admission into the General Hospital, but had been refused. Mr. Weir allowed him to re-main at the hotel until the following Monday, when he returned to his home at Glenorchy. While at the Lord Rod-ney Hotel the deceased was attended by Dr. Crouch. Mr. Weir went out to Glenorchy yesterday morning, when he learned that Cash had expired on Sun-day morning." From this it would
seem that his death occurred on August 26, 1877, instead of August 27. 1877. as stated in the postscript.


Mr. T. J. M. Hull, of Agricola St..Glenorchy, who was born on December 22, 1863, knew Martin Cash, and his account of their first meeting is interesting. He says:

"In my boyhood days I frequently met and conversed with Martin Cash, who lived at the top end of Montrose Rd., Glenorchy, about a mile across the hills from Glen Lynden, where I was born. I also remember seeing his wife, who survived him. His son died of consumption at the age of 18 years. I remember well our first meeting. I was climbing a tree, after a bird's nest, and looking down observed a big man coming towards me, holding a long staff, or stick, in his hand. He asked me if I had seen any cattle about, and on replying that I had just seen some, he told me who he was. I felt a bit scared, but he sat down on a log, and we had quite a long conversation, in which he told me some of his history. I then offered to go with him, and show him where 1 had seen the cattle he was looking for.

"Some time afterwards I found out that Cash was the owner of a beautiful young, cream-coloured pony, which was just what I wanted. He said he would sell it for £10. I eventually pursuaded my father to purchase it for me. My share of the purchase money was £5 —every penny of my savings for years. Being a young animal, and only partly broken in, and I, not being able to ride very well was forced to go wherever it wanted to, it soon became thoroughly spoilt, so much so that my father let the butcher take it, to see if he could master it; but he soon returned it, saying that he could not get it to go. and that it was a thorough 'jibber,' and laid down in the road when he spurred it. Being a conspicuous colour, the pony soon became well known in the district as a 'jibber.' I remember well, my father sending it to Cooley's saleyards at New Town, and telling the man who took it not to bring it back, but to sell it for whatever he could get. The pony was sold for 30s the best offer. Alas, for my savings!"

Mr. Hull remembers seeing the coffin containing the remains of Martin Cash being borne in one of the vans belonging to Cooley's Hotel, Moonah, to Cornelian Bay Cemetery, where, after "life's fitful fever," he sleeps well.

The following article appeared in the newspapers of 1819, surely giving an insight into the difficult time that were faced by the settlers in the New Norfolk district of Back River.
Extract from “The Hobart Town Gazette and Southern Reporter” Saturday 20th February 1819 as written.

Police Office, 9th January, 1819

“Whereas two men at present unknown did about nine o’clock on the night of Wednesday the 3rd day of this present month, burgariously break and enter the dwelling house of Matthew Wood, a settler at the Back River in the District of New Norfolk; and did then and there kill and murder the said M. Wood and afterwards rob the house of the goods mentioned underneath, with which they made off:

And whereas the said two robbers and murderers are at present at large, there are so require all constables and other so use their utmost exertions to discover, apprehend and lodge in life custody the said two felons.

A list of the goods carried off by the murders:

4 white calico shirts, 4 check co???; a piece of grey woolen cloth trousers (the cloth made in Sydney) a white double breasted waistcoat, 5 calico woman’s caps, 1 woman;s cotton gown with red spots, 1 petticoat of the same, 2 brown linen sheets that were issued from the King’s stores, a pair of cotton sheets, a new tin baking dish about 1 foot across and 5 or 6 inches deep, 1 Durchmade gun with braff bands around the flock and barrel, ½ lb gunpowder in a bottle, about 20 lb of moist sugar 2 ½ lb of tea, a promissory note of hand drawn by Thomas Murphy for 5 pounds, payable in June next, a store receipt for 25 pounds signed by Mr Commiffary Broughten, 2 new calico shifts, a back of fine white thread and a quantity of red and brown thread.”

By order of A.W.H. Humphrey, Esq.  W. English Clerk.

Life was very hard in Back River.  Matthew Wood came from Norfolk Island on the Estraminas with his wife Catherine Sponsford.  They were married in 1812.

She may have been the former wife of Zackariah Sponsford, who was a Third Fleet Convict, as research shows he had married a Catherine Lewis, but he arrived back from Norfolk Island without his wife.

Honouring the Pioneers

In 1935, there was an occasion to remember the early Pioneers of Tasmania.  The names of some of those and their descendants are included in this report.

Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Saturday 6 April 1935, page 8

HONOUR TO PIONEERS  Their Deeds of Courage Recalled Launceston Welcomes Descendants
Happy Reunion at Spectacular Ball

Launceston is doing honour to the memory of those enterprising men and women of British stock who following the tradition of the race, left home and country more than a century ago, and braving the dangers of a long voyage in sail, successfully founded a new colony in Tasmania. From all parts of the State, and from mainland centres, have come several hundred descendants of pioneers who settled in Tasmania before 1835. Some of them recall the deeds of their forefathers in overcoming various difficulties and all revere with pride those who triumphed by courage and hard work.

One was mindful of those who had gone before, as the descendants of early settlers gathered yesterday morning in Royal Park, on the site of the first settlement of Launceston, to participate in the opening ceremony in the series of celebrations which have been arranged in their honour. It was near the site of the late Mr. A. B. Biggs' observatory, where the official latitude and longitude of Launceston was determined, that a dais was erected from which the Mayor of Launceston (Mr. E. E. von Bibra) welcomed the visitors to the city, and alongside which the Lord Mayor of Hobart (Mr. J. J. Wignall) planted the first tree in the pioneer memorial avenue, which is to be extended from Launceston to Hobart.

The pioneer ball held in the Albert Hall last night was the most spectacular fixture of the kind held at Launceston since the visit of the Duke of Gloucester, and was noticeable for the large assemblage of pioneer descendants in period costume. The celebrations will be resumed to-day in the Albert Hall and City Park, and will be concluded to-morrow with a united thanksgiving service on the Elphin Show ground.

BIG-HEARTED PEOPLE Mayor's Welcoming Speech Tree Planting Ceremony

It was fitting that the organisers of the celebrations should have chosen for the official welcome to visitors the site in Royal Park on which the first building, the military depot, was erected in Launceston. From an artistic point of view also no bettor locality could have been selected. In the bracing autumn air the sun shone warmly on the green lawns, the flowering gardens, and the shading trees, and a feeling of pride was aroused by the sentiment of the Mayor's welcoming address. Associated with the Mayor on the dais was the Mayoress (Mrs. von Bibra), the Lieut.-Governor (Sir Elliott Lewis), Lady Lewis, the Lord Mayor of Hobart (Mr. J. J. Wignall) and the Lady Mayoress, and the Under-secretary (Mr. E. Parkes).

"One otf the objects of these celebrations is to bring home to the present generation a full appreciation of the achievements of the pioneers," said the Mayor of Launceston, welcoming the visitors on behalf of the city. He said it was specially pleasing to have with them visitors from the mainland and country districts of Tasmania representing pioneer families. He reviewed the early history of Tasmania, and said it was for the purpose of honouring the memory of the big-hearted men and women who, more than a century and a quarter ago, colonised Tasmania, that they had met that day.

"We can have no conception of the difficulties they had to face, but can imagine the magnitude of their task, and appreciate their will power to win through," said the Mayor.' "That they were successful is strongly evidenced to-day. ' What was then thick forest is now verdant farmland, and bullock tracks are now main roads. Where these great pioneers selected suitable locations for a settlement, and built humble homes, we find to-day magnificent cities. Although those whom we honour to-day could not visualise the stage coach being supplanted by the motor-car and aeroplane, the sailing ship by the oilburning luxury liner, and all the wonders of modern science, nevertheless, they paved the way, and laid the foundation on a sound basis, so' that these inventions of man can function for the benefit of this generation and those to come. A realisation of their achievements would help us all in our duty of putting country first. Those splendid men and women have provided us with tradition, which is such a big factor in the development and advancement of any country."

The Mayor referred also to British tradition which had played a large part in the development of Australia, and the success of the Australian Imperial Forces in the Great War. It was fitting that almost in the shadow of the Cenotaph in Royal Park erected to the memory of Tasmania's sons, who had given their lives in the cause of freedom, the tree should be planted. Both monuments were significant of sacrifice. They honoured the memory of 3,000 Tasmanian sons who had given their lives for their, country, so dearly loved by them and by their forefathers.


The Lord Mayor of Hobart said he felt that a great compliment had been paid to the citizens of Hobart by the executive of the pioneer movement in Inviting the Lady Mayoress and him-self to participate in the pioneer celebrations at Launceston. He referred to the hardships endured by early settlers, who had no electricity, bitumen roads, telephones, wireless, or motor-cars, and undertook sea voyages in small sailing vessels in which some to-day would refuse to travel. The organisers of the fixture deserved congratulation on the thoughts which had prompted them to commence a pioneer avenue between Launceston and Hobart. Visitors from overseas often described the drive in a glowing man-ner, but' if the avenue were accomplished he felt sure that their praise would be threefold. Each municipality should co-operate, and endeavours should be made to have the route plant-ed during the coming winter. He would be pleased to assist the movement if there was anything he could do at the southern end. In some municipalities there were already avenues of trees in memory of those who fell In the Great War, and it would be fitting that such avenues, dedicated to those who had died for the freedom of Tasmania should be incorporated with those which would commemorate their forefathers. On behalf of the citizens of Hobart he offered congratulations to the citizens of Launceston, and wished the movement success.
The Lord Mayor then planted the tree, a North American deciduous cypress (Taxodium distchum).

BRILLIANT SPECTACLE    The Pioneers' Ball A Striking Success

Launceston last night staged in the Albert Hall what was probably its most unique and spectacular ball. Its aim was to revive and represent the pioneering days of about a century ago, and if some of the departed early settlers could have returned for a glimpse of the remarkable scene they Inevitably must have enthused over the realistic spectacle that was created. There were women and girls in the costumes of the early 1800 period and the crinolines of later dates; old laces and drapings, fans, handkerchiefs, and bouquet-holders; men and youths in ruffles and other quaint apparel, minuets, lancers, quadrilles and dreamy old waltzes; lively music of other days for the set dances and polkas, and rhythmical tunes for the waltzes. It was a return to the days and the things that great-grand-mothers and great-grandfathers loved and enjoyed so much, and those who participated in the big revival of the "good old days" seemed to derive as much pleasure from the function as did their forbears of a century or more ago.

The decorative scheme was planned to create the old-time atmosphere! The flags and drapings for the embellishment of the hall and the front of the callarles were on the lines adopted for the ball during the Duke of Gloucester's visit, and they had an attractive effect. From the gallery were suspended numerous lanterns, such as the pioneers carried or used for the illumination of their dance-halls and other places of amusement. Some of the bush, as the pioneers first saw it, was transferred to the hall in the shape of gum trees, old man ferns, and other greenery.

The stage was set out to represent a drawing-room of 100 years ago. A very old carpet (in years, but not appearance) covered the floor. Round the walls were old mirrors, whatnots, and a large stuffed eagle. At the rear black and pink curtains hung gracefully. They were drawn slightly aside near the centre. The old-time furniture was covered with the useful antimacassars of bygone days. All looked unique from the point of view of modern drawing-room furnishing, but lt was very comfortable. The stage was occupied by the Vice-Regal party and invited guests.

Round the sides of the hall underneath the gallery, the space was occupied by lounges which were reserved for special parties. A large annexe was erected on the City Park side of the Albert Hall. This was designed to accommodate 350 for sitting out. In it also was a large tavern where refreshments were served. The supper was of the buffet type. This proved a very convenient arrangement and sup-per was available almost throughout the night.


Outside the main entrance to the hall 12 boys in red coats formed a guard, and four girls Jeanette Dough-arty, Anne McIntyre, Pamela Fysh, and June Evans-distributed the programmes and pencils. They were dressed in costumes of the early period. Special souvenir programmes were provided.
The music for the ball was provided by a special orchestra under Mr. S. Joscelyne. Other members of it were:-Messrs. H. A. Johnson, M. Ford, N. Piper, A. Horne, C. Edwards, and A. Fraser.

For the square dances a special Master of Ceremonies, Mr. Norman Shepperd, came from Sydney. With his assistance the dancers executed the figures well. Many had been rehearsing to refresh their memories of the half-forgotten movements of the lancers and other set dances.

The ball was opened with a grand march led by Miss Dorothy Sorell and her brother (daughter and son of Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Sorell, of Hobart, and direct descendants of Governor Sorell). The march was spectacular and a feature in itself.

The dancing began with a pretty minuet danced by girls in costumes of the pioneering days. They entered from the far end of the hall and after having performed the picturesque movements of the dance broke into a polka and the dancers generally, joined in. It made a pretty and effective beginning to the enjoyment of the night. Those who took part in the minuet were:-Misses Mary and Lesley Weedon, Peggy McIntyre, Beatrice Hall, Marjory Snashall, Meta Archer, Peggy Harrison, Margaret Ramsay, Alison Boyes, Mrs. P. Brodie, Messrs. W. Harrison, T. Harrison, H. Gatenby, R. Gatenby, P. Waterworth, K. Nicolson, R. Edwards, G. Smith, L. Evans, J. Green.

The invited guests were: The Governor and Lady Clark and party, the Acting Prime Minister (Dr. Earle Page), the Acting Premier (Mr. E. Dwyer-Gray) and Mrs. Dwyer-Gray, the Lord Mayor of Hobart (Mr. J. J. Wignall) and Mrs. Wignall, the Mayor of Launceston (Mr. E. E. von Bibra), the Bishop of Tasmania (the Right Rev. Dr. R. Snowdon Hay) and Mrs. Hay, the Archbishop of Hobart (the Most Rev. Dr. W. Hay-den), Sir Herbert Nicholls and Lady Nicholls, the President of the Legislative Council (Mr. W. B. Propsting) and Mrs. Propsting, the Speaker of the House of Assembly (Mr. D. O'Keefe] and Mrs. O'Keefe, the Minister for Lands and Works (Major T. H. Davies) and Mrs. Davies, the president of the Royal Society (Colonel W. E. Crowther) the Leader of the Opposition (Sir Walter Lee) and Lady Lee.

The District Commandant (Colonel J. L. Witham) the District Naval Officer (Lieut.-Commander F. W. Heriot), Mr. E. J. Side bottom (representing the Historical Society), the president State Council of Churches (the Rev. W. N. Gunsen) the president of the Fifty Thousand League (Mr. H. J. Solomon), and the pioneer gathering executive committee, comprising Mrs. F. G. Dougharty (organiser), Messrs. H. V. Sellers (secretary), T. M. Cosh (chairman), A. L. Wardlaw, M.L.C., Colonel C. Evans, Mesdames K. T. McIntyre and G. Youl.

The ball committee was: Mesdames K. T. McIntyre (convener). Geoffrey Youl (in charge), G. Meredith, K. von Stieglitz, W. Earle, F. Allan, A. A Evans (in charge), F. Edginton, F. Cole, C. Jenkins, Z. Viney. The supper committee was: Mesdames A. C. Jenkins (in charge), J. A. von Alwyn, K. Johnston, M. Allen, C. Evans, H. W. A. von Stieglitz, H. W. L. von Stieglitz, M. Symmons, J. McBain, R. Burgess, H.  Coe, F. Hare, P. C. Grubb, H. V. Sellers, G. Cleaver, Misses B. Compton, E. Murray, J. Waterhouse, T. Thirkell, M. Thyne, Peggy McIntyre, Betty Allen. The decorations committee comprised Mesdames A. A. Evans, E. von Bibra, G. Youl, F. Edglnton, A. Pepper, Messrs. W. Earle, Z. Viney, Guy Meredith, D. Mackinnon.

The guests were received by Dr. W. K. McIntyre, who was attired in a naval uniform of the type worn by his grand-father at the time of Waterloo, and Mrs. McIntyre.

A bright feature of the evening was a number of glee songs rendered by a party of singers in costume, and carrying lighted lanterns. The electric lights were lowered while they sang.

The attendance on the floor was estimated at 600, and another 700 crowded the galleries. The fixture was regarded as an education to the younger generation as well as one of the most enjoyable and spectacular of its kind that has been held at Launceston.

Numerous period suits were worn by the men, many of whom were adorned with ruffles, lace, and side whiskers, some of which unhappily became displaced during the dances.


The following are the early pioneers of Tasmania whose descendants were represented at the ball last night, the date, in parentheses, being that of arrival in Tasmania:-

 Joseph Archer (1835), Thomas Archer (1812), Archer (1834), Arthur (1824), John Archer (1832), Arthur (1824), John Austen (1831) , Allison (-), John Anderson (1832) , John Amos (1821), Amos (-.), Thomas Axford (1822), John Kinder Archer (1828), Robert Alomes (1804), 

Bennell family (1834), James Bennell (1821) , Daniel Bowen (1826), Samuel Bowon (1832), Lieutenant John Bowen, R.K. (1B03), Bonnett (-), Bennett (1820), Charles Best (1830), Major Brumby (1S03J, James Brumby (1804), George and Mary Bushby (1834), George Bushby (1829), Archdeacon Browne (1823 or 1828),"William Brown (1834), Henry Button (1833) , the Rev. Barnett (1833), David Barclay (1830), John Boutcher (1827), Thomas Bock (1821-22),' Beveridge (1832), Peter Brewer (1824), the Rev. William Burnett (1832), Blackberry (1822) , Francis Louis von Bibra (1818), Jacobena Burn (1820), the Rev. William Henry Browne (1828-33), Peter Brewer (1824), Bruce (1822), Dr. Matthew Bow'den, R.N. (1803), William Barnes (1827), James Bonlther (1832), Brown (1834) , G. T. W. B. Boyes (1821-2), William Burke (1820), Baird (1820), B. Brooks (1820), Bingey (1829), Beach (about 1833), Mrs. Burns (1821), Gilbraoth Blyth (1824-5), Bonner (-), 

Gov. David Collins (1811),  George Collins (1822), John Clark (1804), Wm. Crowther (1825), Cato (-), William Chick (1826), M. Colquhoun (1823), Captain Coulson (1821) , Caswell (1810), William Crow-ther, F,R.C.S. (about 1826), Francis Cotton (1826), Alexander Clerk (1824), Crocker (1828), James Erskine Calder (1829), F. H. Crouch (1803), 

Roddam Hulke Douglas (1832), Henry Osborne Douglas (1830), William Matthew Dean (1829), William Dean (1825), the Rev. Henry Dowling (1828), Walter Davids (1823), Malcolm Duncanson (1834; Barnett Dickson (1830), Diprose (1821), Win. Dodery (1828); Miss William Daw-son (1832), Sergeant J. Dell (1804), Michael Dugan (1823), Captain J. C. Dumas (-), John Dobson (1834), Captain Edward Dumaresq (1825), W. Drysdale (1820), 

Eddie (1825), Francis Evans (1832), H. J. Emmett (1819), 

F. P. Faulkner (1804), John Daniel Faulkner (-), D. R. Falkiner (1833), Fawkner (1804), Mrs. John Foster (1821), Louis Francis (1818), John Ferguson (1833), Ferrar Family (1829), R. W. Fryett (1817), Lemuel Feutrlll (1820- 30), Field (-), Joseph Facy (1825), 

Humphrey Gregg (1828), Captain E. P. Gregg (1831), William Dawson Grubb (1826), Andrew Gatenby (1823), Gatenby (1827), Dr. Matthias Gaunt (1829). Jonathan Griffiths (1820),- Lieut. Wm. Gunn (1822), John Alex. Gellie (1820-5) , Lieut. Francis Gerard (1830), Richard Green (1831), Corporal Gangel (1803), the Rev. Wm. Garrard (1834), John Ward Gleadow (1825), William Gee (1832), Andrew Gooding (approx.) (1800), Grant (1821), Captain Goldsmith (1823), John Woodcock Graves (1833), Lieut. William Greon (1822), Migil John Denis Griesley (1S30), John Garrett (1829), George Gould (1830), 

Mr. and Mrs. John Headlam (1820), Charles Headlam (early 19th century), Thomas Headlam (1820), Henry Lewis Hill (1829), Henry Hills (1832), Hudson Family (1826), Thomas Hayes (1804), William Hart, M.L.C. (1833), George Hall (1819), James Hamilton (1831-2), Peter Harrison (1822), Robert William Harrison (1823), Private James Hortle (1808), Hartnoll Family (1803), Hey-ward (1833-4), Lieut. James Hobbs, R.N. (1803-4), Hood (1833), David Heath (1833),
George Hull (1819), Captain William Hall. K.N. (1835), William Hudson (1832J, Hart (1834), Hawley (-), Hume (1826), Thomas Hewitt (1828), Charles Brown Hardwicke (1816) , Howard (1832), Horne (1831), Hieghty (1829), James Hobbs (1804), Judge Joseph Hone (1803-4), 

Frederick Maitland Innes (1833), 

Johnstone (1832), Patrick Johnston (1817), David Jamieson (1804), Jex (1834). 

Keene (1831-39), Kerrison (1835), Kidd (1823), Eliza Kermode (1810), 

William Lyne (1826), Lyne Family (1826), Lawrence (1S23), R. de Little (1832), John Lither (1826), John B. Lither (1820), Major T. D. Lord (1825), David Lord (1817), Captain William Langdon, R.N. (1821), Captain Langdon (1823), Henry Elms Lette (1817) , R. V. Legge (1827), John Lake-land (1818), Mrs. Reynolds Lamprill (1808), Thomas Lewis (1822), Dr. Marcus Richard Loane (1834), 

William Mason (1818), Kennedy Murray (1830), David Murray (1824), Hugh Murray (1822) , Thomas Massey (1803-4), Mid-wood (1822), Askin Morrison (1829), Mace (1830), George Milne (1818), George Meredith (1821), Marshall (1821), Thomas Monds (1822), James Morris Martin (1821), Milne (1818), Allan Mac-kinnon (1823),' McKenzie (1820), Mc-Kercher (1823), Colonel McLeod (1830-6) , M. Jessie MacLean (1823), Captain John Arthur (- ) the Rev. John MacKersey (1826), 

Willlam Thomas Napier (1828), Captain William Nairn (1815), William Fox Newman (1818), the Rev. James Norman (1827), Captain William Neilly (1824),

H. L. Oakes (1824) , O'Connor Family (1824), John Olive (1816), James O'Halloran (1833), 

Silas Parsons (1833), the Rev. Thomas Tacher Parker (1822), Jas. G. Parker (1820), Price Family (1822), Robert Price (1834), Henry Page (1817), Pyke (1834). Parkin (1824), John and Isa-bella Porter (1829), John Lewis Pedder (1824), George Parramore (1823), 

Lieutenant David Rose (1810), Henry Reed (1827) , Captain G. F. Read (1810), James Reid (1823), Captain Robson (1819), Ransom (1814), William Russell (1832), William Rallley (1824), Dr. James Richardson (1827), Ritchie (1820), Ralston Family (1824), David Reynolds (1808), Racolues (1824), William Rumney (1823), 

John Swan.(1823), John'Smith (1822) , Captain Malcolm Lang Smith (1825) , William Stanley Sharland (1823) , John Sharland (1824), William Shoobridge (1822), Joseph Solomon (1817) , I. F. H. Solomon (1817), Scott (-), Stanfield (1808), James Morrison Stephenson (1822), Joshua Spode (1821), Sharland (1823), Sturgess (-), Thom-as Symmons (1829), Sldebottom (1825), Colonel William Sorell (1817), Joseph Holbert Smalls (1803 or 1808). Daniel Stampbet (1808), William Saltmarsh (1808), Sculthorpe (1834), 

Jocelyn Henry Conner Thomas (1827), Willlam Tyson (1S10). the Rev. Nathaniel Turner (1822), Taylor (1S33), Captain Samuel Tulloch (1837), Lieutenant Francis Gerard Tabart, R.N. (1830), John Terry (1818) , Robert Thirkell (1820), Bryant Bartley Theodore (1821), George Taylor (1823), 

Captain Michael Vicary (1828) , Ven (1834), 

Richard White (1803), Charles James Weedon (1831). Lieut. Willlams (1822), Dr. AVestbrook (--). John Watson (1832), Wise (1820). Frederick John Woolrabe (1825), Robert Wilkins (1827), Webster (1834), White (1832), Willes (1825), Captain William Wood (1829), William Pritchard Weston (1824), Windeatt Family (1833-4), 

John Youl (1819), John and Helen Young (1824), William Yea (-).

The frockings were delightfully quaint and in picturesque contrast to the fashions of the present day. Frocks, fichus, laces, Jabots, a variety of frills, old lace bonnets, and even wigs that had been familiar for so many years were all out, and seemed remarkably fresh. Old necklaces and a great array of ornaments, which were the vogue in former days, added to the old-time at-mosphere. Lady Clark wore a beautiful gown of grey satin. It was made with long cape sleeves, and the skirt fell in a graceful train.

A frock made in Hobart in 1822 was worn by Miss Joyce Mason. The material was of rose silk and the 113-year old fashion featured a tight-fitting bodice, leg-of-mutton sleeves, and deep panel down the back, a very full gathered skirt and net fichu. Mrs. Norman Gatenby, of Longford, wore an old frock of rose brocade with an old lace fichu, and a novel feature was a white wig. Mrs. M. Arthur, Longford, was gowned in royal blue brocade with a very old Maltese silk fichu. 

Mrs. P. A. Harrison, of Longford, had a dress of black taffeta with old lace fichu and lace panels in the sleeves. Miss Thirkell, of St. Leonards, wore a frock of deep cream made with trillings, and a beautiful old lace Jabot. Mrs. T. G. Johnston, St. Leonards, was in deep  blue brocade, with frills to the waist, tight-fitting bodice and frills over the shoulder. Mrs, H. Hawley, Longford, wore mauve brocade with a long train and black silk fichu over 100 years old; Mrs. G. T. Harris, of Launceston, old gold and cream brocade, with bustle back; Miss Lawrence, Launceston, a trained gown of rose brocade, with a very old lace fichu and a little old lace bonnet; Mrs. John Watson, of Launceston, a beige lace frock with deep cape collar and full length tight-fitting sleeves; Mrs. John Taylor, Winton, em-erald green taffeta frock with cashmere shawl and lace cape; Mrs. Arthur Bennett, Ross, very old striped. silk frock with black beaded dolman, cream lace yoke and black velvet bonnet. 

She  wore a silver locket on a wide band, and sliver bracelets which were 200 years old, and carried a very old Victorian posy. Mrs. McIntyre, of Hobart, wore a black silk brocade frock with cream cape and cream lace bonnet. Parts of the frock were made in 1800. Miss Jean Brent (Hobart) was frock-ed in bronze silk and plush, with old lace collar, the outfit being over 50 years old; Mrs. E. Lawrence, Cressy, floral taffeta, with lace cape collar; Mrs. F. G. Dougharty, Launceston, a trained gown of black silk; Mrs. F. Colo, Exeter, white tucked organdie skirt and green and white striped bodice: Mrs. F. Edglnton, Exeter, black net frock trimmed with Royal blue; Miss K. Richardson, Launceston, very old frock of blue hand-embroidered taffeta silk. It was made with a lace collar, and the skirt had three frills, and she carried a very old fan. The costume was about 80 years old.

Mrs. G. Youl, Perth, wore white organdie silk with tight bodice and very full frilled skirt. It was trimmed down the front and side with little red bows. Mrs. E. Archer, Burnside, was gowned in a black moire frock, striped with ivory satin. Mrs. Percy Grubb, Strathroy, blue taffeta trimmed with very old lace: Mrs. Tom Gatenby, white book muslin, made with very full skirt and long train; 

Miss Smales, Launceston, white taffeta patterned in mauve with lace fichu, the frock being about 80 years old: Mrs. E. Ferrar, St. Leonards, frock of brown lace worn with silk shawl and a lace bonnet. She carried a little black parasol. The costume was very old. Miss Beatrice Ferguson, Launceston, wore black taffeta. with full skirt and bustle, and trimmed with very old lace; Miss Molly Mackinnon, Vaucluse, cream silk, with strappings of cerise and very old lace; Mrs. W. K. McIntyre, grey brocade, trimmed with blue and grey net.Mrs. E. E. von Bibra wore cream silk, with frilled skirt and lace collar.


Evidence waa noticeable yesterday of the keen interest being taken in the special book provided at the Launceston Town Hall for signing by descendants of pioneers who arrived in Tasmania prior to 1835. At times a queue of between 20 and 30 persons was waiting to sign, and by 5 p.m. hundreds of names had been placed on its pages. A large number of other signatures has yet to be affixed, and it is expected that when completed the book will contain a valuable record of pioneers' descendants.

THE MILLS FAMILY Interesting Early History Claim Regarding Victoria.

Interviewed again in Launceston yesterday, Mr. W. Mills, who is accompanied by his three sisters, reiterated his claim that his grandfather, Charles Mills, accompanied by a brother, John Mills, settled in Victoria eight years before Henty arrived. Mr. W. Mills stated that John and Charles went as mere lads to Victoria, crossing Bass Strait in an open, flat-bottomed ship. The father of these two boys, Lieut. Peter Mills, was a midshipman on Bligh's ship, The Bounty, and was also on the ship Duke of Cornwallis when a mutiny took place. He was appointed by Bligh as a deputy-surveyor of lands at Port Dalrymple, and in 1810 he was appointed superintendent of stock there. He married Jennifer, daughter of Capt. John Brabyn.

In "The History of Warrnambool," lt is stated that Capt. John Mills was sealing long before the whalers arrived off the Victorian coast. John Mills became mate in the Mars, which was whaling in New Zealand in 1835. Capt. John Mills sailed the historic schooner Thistle, the first craft to navigate the Yarra. In 1852 he was master of the brig Essington, and he carried many of the early residents from Sydney to Tasmania.


There arrived in Tasmania in 1804, with Governor Collins, 12 settlers, among whom was Mr. Thomas Hayes, and his wife, Elizabeth. In the following year a son, John, was born, and it is claimed that this son was the first free-born male child in Tasmania.

John Hayes was for some years a member of Parliament. He was the grandfather of Senator J. B. Hayes. Senator Hayes' mother also was of pioneer ancestry, being a grand-daughter of Dr. Wm. Crowther, who arrived in Tasmania in 1826. Her father, William Blyth, arrived in 1834, and married Elizabeth Crowther in 1835.  Mrs. J. B. Hayes also is a grand-daughter of the late William Blyth.

ARRANGEMENTS TO-DAY  City Park Celebrations Vice-Regal Reception

The Launceston City Park to-day will be transformed into old Launceston, and many aspects of the life of the city in former days will be featured. Visitors will pass through the old wooden toll gate, which is being constructed at the main entrance to the park. The first of the replicas of old buildings they will see will be "Ye Olde Toffee Shop," and no doubt the old town crier will be met in this vicinity. The crier will be the identical Checkers, who has been engaged for the purpose. He will appear in his old costume, with his bell, and will announce all items of interest. 

The next building sighted will be the old tavern, and at this re-treat may be purchased cakes, Sally buns, brandy snaps, Banberry tarts, and soft drinks. Next is "Ye Olde Tuck Shoppe," where all kinds of old fashioned dainties will be obtainable Hereabouts visitors who have been to London will see a familiar sight - an old coffee stall, such as may be found in London even to-day. On the lawns there will be a bevy of young girls, who under the direction of Miss Lulu Fraser, will dance at various intervals Scotch lassies will be seen dancing to familiar tunes, played by the pipes. A space on the lawn has been reserved for ordinary dances, in which visitors may join. It is expected that this will be fully availed of. At night the ground will be specially illuminated. The following organisations are assisting with the park celebrations:-Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, Apex Club, Toc H, and several energetic women's committees.


Not the least impressive of the various ceremonies will be the dedication of the Garden of Memory by the Governor (Sir Ernest, Clark), at 4.30 p.m. This tiny garden is situated in the park itself, and is immediately be-hind the Dutch Garden. In this reserve there is a gravelled oval, in the centre of which ls to be erected a slab of Tasmanian red granite, on which will be a brass plate, bearing an inscription to the memory of pioneers.


The vice-regal reception will be held in the Albert Hall at 2.30 p.m. This will be the only function in the celebrations which will be restricted to descendants of centenary pioneers. It is pointed out, however, that husbands, who are not otherwise eligible, may accompany their pioneer descendant wives, and vice versa. The presence of children will be welcome. Pending the arrival of the Governor, selections will be played on the grand organ by the City Organist (Mr. A. R. Gee). The Governor, Lady Clark, and suite will arrive at 2.25 p.m. The Governor will take his place on the dais before the National Anthem is sung. Then will follow an address by the Governor, after which the "Old Hundredth" will be sung, and upon a signal given by a fanfare of trumpets, the guests will file past the vice-regal dais. The names of all present will be announced by the aide-de-camp. As the guests file past the dais they will pass into the park. Afternoon tea will be served in the annexe, and will be available to those attending the reception at a nominal charge.

A united, thanksgiving service and children's demonstration on the Elphin show ground to-morrow afternoon will conclude the celebrations.

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