Friday, August 24, 2018

B17 Thomas Bradshaw from Sutton Cambridgeshire.


From Sutton Cambridgeshire









"SUTTON, a parish in the hundred of South Witchford, Isle of Ely, county Cambridge, 6 miles south-west of Ely, its post town, and 1½ mile from Mepal. It is the terminus of the Ely and Sutton branch of the Great Eastern railway. The village, which is extensive, is situated on an eminence, and had anciently a market and fair. Saxon coins, and other relics of antiquity, were discovered here in 1634. The living is a vicarage* in the diocese of Ely, value £1,200, in the patronage of the dean and chapter. The church, dedicated to St. Andrew, contains a double piscina, stone font, &c. It was built by Bishop Barnet, who died in 1373. The register dates from 1700. There is a free school supported by the Dean and Chapter of Ely. The Wesleyans and Baptists have chapels."
[Transcribed and edited information from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland - 1868]


The story begins with the marriage of Elizabeth Brunsell to John Bradshaw in 1628 in Sutton Cambridgeshire.


 It is probable that her name was Brunell, and descendant from Hugh Brunell, a Knight in the diocese of Ely.

They had a son Benjamin Bradshaw born 1650 and died 1700 in Sutton Cambridgeshire. He married Mary Ann Lake and among the children was

Robert Bradshaw born 1696 in Sutton Cambridgeshire who married Thomasin Goats and he died in 1775.

The Goats Family of Sutton Cambridgeshire  There were two families, William and Sarah  and Thomas and Elizabeth

William's children included:

John 1685; Abraham, 1698; Elizabeth 1704; Isaac 1701;; Joseph 1705; William 1708; Thomas 1708 d 1708

Thomasin Goats married in 1716 Robert Bradshaw in Sutton Cambridgeshire

Their children were

Benjamin, 1717 d 1717; Benjamin 1718; Mary 1721 d 1729; Robert 1722 d 1782; Elizabeth 1727; William 1730 d 1782.

Robert Bradshaw married Martha Mary Gimbert in 1754  in Sutton Cambridgeshire

The children were
·        William Bradshaw        1759 - 1836      who married Amy Feast in 1787
·        Benjamin Bradshaw      1761 - 1839       who married Ann Earl
·        Mary Bradshaw             1764 - 1811
·        Elizabeth Bradshaw      1772
·        Thomas Bradshaw        1777                 who married Elizabeth Rebecca Creamer

Amy Feast born 1763 was the daughter of Thomas Feast and his wife Mary. She was later beneficiary to her father's will.

She and William Bradshaw had a son William.  He was the nephew of Thomas Bradshaw.

   




Thomas Bradshaw was convicted of Highway Robbery




All the initial research undertaken by the various researchers over decades, had failed to find what happened to Thomas Bradshaw, and the thinking was that he perhaps died at or on arrival in Sydney.

That all changed when Cathy Dunn, a well known historical researcher from New South Wales began work on some old historical files of court proceedings.

It was then learnt that Thomas not only survived, but was living in Sydney in 1800!

Minutes of Proceedings of the Judge Advocate's Bench, 8 Dec 1798 - 5 Mar 1800, State Records New South Wales X767, NRS 3397 has proven Thomas Bradshaw was alive in 1799 and the fact it states Elizabeth Bradshaw his wife with Robert Gillett

At a Sitting of Magistrates at the Judge Advocates Office on 4th January 1800 at 10.am

"Thomas Bradshaw complained of John White having assaulted him this morning when he went to his house in search of his wife - but it appeared in examination the complainant was the aggressor by beginning in the affray in a insolent manner - The complainant was therefore dismissed and the complainant reprimanded, but Elizabeth Bradshaw his wife, who had cohabited with one Robert Gillett, who had beat and cruelly ill unto her, was recommended to return and live with her Husband, and Gillett (who was also brought up/was ordered to be sent to Toongabbie to work and on no account to be permitted to leave it."


On 18th January 1800 it was reported that Robert Gillett had promised to return to work by Monday!


http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/…/ViewHeritageItemDetails…

At the sitting of the Magistrate at the Judges Advocate Office the 18th January 1800
Present The Judge Advocate Mr Richard W Johnson

W Rath produced Gaol Report

Captain Johnston complained of Chambers, Howlett, V Gillett having forfeited their Government Work.

Ordered to make good the works by Monday which they promised to do




Old Toongabbie is 29kms west of Sydney & where Gov Phillip established a 640 acres government farm & convict station in 1791. Farm was closed c.1802


The record of his arrival indicated his trade.
 A bit of family brain-storming and research revealed that he was probably a "block-cutter"





William Noah - 'A Voyage to Sydney in New South Wales in 1798 & 1799' and 'A Few Remarks of the County of Cumberland in New South Wales, 1798-1799 

This image may be used freely without requesting permission. Please acknowledge that the image is from the collections of the State Library of NSW.     
 
But then the trail runs cold.  There were many people named Thomas Bradshaw who were convicts and who arrived after 1810.  But Thomas Bradshaw was not recorded on any musters that have been thoroughly checked.

What became of Thomas Bradshaw?  Another of those family mysteries, but from the account Robert and Elizabeth were co-habiting in January 1800.




Mary Ann Bradshaw

In 1805, Mary Ann was with her mother on Norfolk Island and mentioned in the muster of February 1805, along with her two half brothers.


MUSTER OF NORFOLK ISLAND, FEBRUARY 1805
       BRADSHAW, Elizabeth - Free woman - off stores
                                     James      - child - off stores
                                     Mary Ann - child - off stores
                                     William   - child - off stores
       JILLETT, Robert: male convict - labourer - off stores

LIST OF THE NAMES OF EVERY MAN, WOMAN AND CHILD ON AND OFF THE STORES RESIDING IN HIS MAJESTY'S SETTLEMENT AT NORFOLK ISLAND - FEBRUARY 1805  (Appendix A in: Wright, Reg.,1986.  The Forgotten Generation of Norfolk Island and Van Diemen's Land.  Library of Australian History, Sydney).  Record AONSW 4/11167A, Reel 762 and COD413.

Robert JILLETT, labourer, male convict, off the stores.
Elizabeth BRADSHAW, a free woman, off the stores.
Mary Ann BRADSHAW,   )
William BRADSHAW,      )   all three listed under, "children of all
James BRADSHAW,         )         descriptions off the stores".

Elizabeth and Thomas Bradshaw's daughters were
Elizabeth Bradshaw      B 1796 in Warwickshire and died either in England
Mary Ann Bradshaw     B  30/1/1797                 M 24/03/1812 to Charles Horne (Horam or Houran)  1 Child





Mary Ann Bradshaw was the daughter of Elizabeth and Thomas Bradshaw, and she came to Australia with her mother on the convict ship "Hillsborough"  She was born 30th January 1797, so would have been only 2 years old during the journey.





She married on 24th March 1812 at St Davids Hobart Town, to Charles Horan.  His name was often recorded as Horam, Horne or Houran, they lived at Back River New Norfolk.   Charles had a land grant next to Thomas Shone. 



They had one child, possibly  Edward Horne  b. 7th July 1813.  Tasmanian Archives also has it recorded as Edward Lorne, father Charles Lorne.


Charles Horan was appointed a Constable to the District of New Norfolk in July 1820

In the 1819 musters, Charles Horan is listed came free




It would seem that Mary-Ann and Charles only had the one son, as the 1822 Muster of Free Men has an entry for Charles Horan, "Came free" and having 1 male child.

One night in 1821, Robert, William and James were all charged with assault on Charles Horne!
Hobart Town Gazette and Van Diemen’s Land Advertiser (Tas. : 1821 - 1825)




On 29th April, 1826 he posted an advertisement, "I the undersigned, hereby caution the public against giving trust and credit to my wife, Mary Horan, on my account, she having left the home without any just cause or provocation, and any person found harbouring, concealing or maintain her after this notice will be dealt with for such offence as the law directs.

Hobart Town Gazette (Tas. : 1825 - 1827) Saturday 29 April 1826


Colonial Times and Tasmanian Advertiser (Hobart, Tas. : 1825 - 1827) Friday 26 January 1827

Then there are two articles in the Hobart newspapers of the day, one dated 26th January 1827, where a Peter Cleary is charged with cutting, with intent to murder, Mary Horan, formerly Gillett.  The prosecutrix, however, denied all knowledge of the statement she had made before the Magistrate, and behaved very improperly in Court, for which she was committed to gaol for one month.  The prisoner Cleary was found guilty of an assault only.  On this trial there was a great prevarication among the witnesses.


Then there is another article on 6th February 1827 where James Cleary was tried for stabbing Mary Horan on 31st July, with intention feloniously, wilfully and maliciously aforth to kill and murder.  A second count charges him with assault.  He was found guilty on the second charge.

Mary Horan was committed to Launceston gaol for one month imprisonment for insolent language to the Judge and indecorous behaviour before the court.

In 1838, she was named for having unclaimed letters.
Records have indicated that Charles died in 1864


By 1814, there was another Thomas Bradshaw in Tasmania, but he was from England, as both his daughters, Mary and Ann were born in London, though they were baptised in Hobart.












William and Marion Bradshaw children

1.      William Burrough Bradshaw     1826     1915
2.      Charles Feast Bradshaw             1829     -           1907
3.      Edwin Buller Bradshaw             1831 - 1901
4.      Alfred Bradshaw                        1833 - 1836
5.      Matilda Harriett Bradshaw        1836 - 1885  M  England  m  Henry Fisher Bannister 1856
6.      Miriam Bradshaw                      1841  -  1909   Henry Allday Alexander
7.      Caroline Bradshaw                    1846 - 1846     Adelaide
8.      Emma Bradshaw                       1848 -1848       Adelaide
9.      George Frederick Bradshaw      1849     1850     Adelaide
Emma Bradshaw                              1851 -   1851



In 1863, he appears to be a baker at Ballarat and be insolvent.
Victoria Tin Mining
Inspections were made and reports furnished on the following mines, &c. :--Newlyn Valley, in
re boring, Britannia, Ballarat East, Limonite deposit at Bradshaw's Creek, New Kohinoor (several visits), Ballarat East Prospecting, West Berry Consols, Magotty Hill, Buninyong Rand, New Cornish mine, Daylesford, Steele's Pioneer.

 Inspections of land were made at Taylor's Hill, Bradshaw's Creek, Durham Lead, Lal Lal, Dereel, Allendale, Creswick, and ~apoleons.












William Bradshaw and the Eureka Stockade.

While William had nothing to do with the uprising, his evidence and opinions formed part of a Government Enquiry.





Mr. William Bradshaw examined.

133. Are you a gold miner residing at Ballaarat ?-Yes.

134. Bow long have you been here ?-Two years and a half.

135. Have you any suggestions to offer to the Commissioners relative to the questions under their consideration ?-Selling Crown Lands by public auction, in my opinion, is detrimental to the interests of all persons residing in this Colony, inasmuch as it leads to land jobbing; I would suggest that the land should be sold at the upset price, in lots limited to one hundred acres or so, to each individual person.

136. Do not you think that this Gold Field is so valuable and so populous that there would scarcely be land ·enough for all the applicants within a reasonable distance of it to give them all land at that low rate and in such large lots ?-I wish it to be limited to one hundred acres to prevent monopoly.

137. Could not a remedy for that be found by a greatly larger quantity of land being put into the market ?-I think if the land was thrown open there would be no more purchased than was actually required.

138. Do you think there would be sufficient land within a reasonable distance to give one hundred acres to everybody ?-I do not mean to say that they would be obliged to buy one hundred acres, they could buy less if they wished it, but they should not be allowed to buy any more.

139. Do not you think these very cheap terms you propose would induce every man to get one hundred acres ?-No. ·

140. Do not you think the terms you propose are under the present market rate? I do not look at what is present, I look to what is in the future; we know not how soon provisions may fall. I think the great root of the evil here has been having to pay so much for food on the diggings when there is so much land all round which might be cultivated.


141. Have you ever considered what a great injustice it would be to persons who have already bought land at auction, if the lands were to be thrown open to selection in the way you propose ?-I should be one of the sufferers. I look upon it that I have a right to make a sacrifice if necessary, but I think the more the land is opened the more valuable my land will be.

142. How would you prevent parties buying more than one hundred acres ?-It would be necessary for a law to be enacted. I believe in some parts of the world there is such a thing done on purpose to prevent monopoly.

143. How could you prevent a man selling his one hundred acres, and so another party acquiring more than his original one hundred acres by means of private purchase? Let him sell it and well if he pleases. If the Government always kept sufficient land in the market to meet the demand, no more private speculation would take place.

144. Are you aware that the present Government here cannot touch the land question at all in the way of altering either the price or the mode of sale ?-I did not understand that. If so, I believe you can memorialize the English Government.

145. Would it not meet the point you wish to arrive at if the Government were constantly to keep a large quantity of land in the market and sell every month ?-I think the selling by auction does not give a person a fair chance. 'l'here may be a land sale and my stuff may not be washed, and I may not be able to buy the land, but a man may come from England or any other part of the world, and may come up here and spend a quantity of money which he may have taken out of his business, and then turn round to me and say he will sell it to me, and he will ask fifty or one hundred per cent. profit upon that land which he knows I want.

146. You only want to give each man an opportunity of getting some land, that one man shall not step in and buy half the land to the injury of others ?-Yes.

147. Would you prevent a man buying land for his children, although he might not use it immediately ?-No, certainly not; but we are sending all our money out from the Gold Fields to buy corn and provisions, and I think it is necessary that something should be done to counteract that evil.

148. Are you acquainted with the New Zealand regulations with regard to land? No, I am not.

149. The proposed plan there is to lay down a township, then suburban lots round it, and then special country lots. Those three classes of land they sell by auction, and the fourth class, which consists of country lands beyond those, they leave open for selection at a fixed price of 10s. per acre, in lots of not more than five hundred acres, and they admit parties to take possession of those lands either by paying down the purchase money in full, or by paying a deposit of 1s. per acre, and the remainder at any time within four years, they not getting their grant for the land until they prove that they have effected improvements upon it to a certain extent; and, further, they make an allowance to the purchaser for a certain portion of the passage money of himself, his servants, or friends if he came from Europe or Australia?    I do not think that system would answer here.

150. Do you think there would be a very general desire on the part of all the diggers to possess a piece of land ?-Yes, if they could go to the Land Office, and purchase it when they had the means to pay for it.

151. Do you think there is enough land to give all the diggers on the ground one hundred acres each, within a reasonable distance of the Gold Field ?-Yes, because there would only be a certain number go out to farming-,-those who are adapted to it. There are a great number of men on the diggings who are not adapted for digging, and are well acquainted with farming.

152. Would not a much less quantity than one hundred acres suffice?-To shew how eager men are to purchase land, I may say that I have bought land here at £30 10s. an acre, and I can go and sell it now at £100 an acre.

153. Does not that arise from the circumstance of the Government having kept the supply far short of the demand; if the Government constantly kept the supply in excess of the demand, must not the land become so plentiful that the speculators would have no chance ?-I think not.

154. Take the case of the last six months in Melbourne or Geelong; has the speculator been able to sell his land ?-I am speaking now of the diggings.

155. Would you not apply the same principle to the diggings as to the town ? - I think not; if the auction system were not resorted to, people could buy land when they wanted it, but when land is put up to auction people must buy the land, and if the diggers have not money they cannot buy. I would also suggest that parties not being able to purchase land should be allowed to lease land at a nominal rent, say 3s. per acre, with right to purchase at the upset price at a stipulated time, say seven years.


156. Do not you think there is enough money amongst the diggers, and the colonists generally, to enable them to buy land out and out instead of leasing; we have had evidence that a day's wages here is 30s., so that a single day's wages would actually buy an acre and a half of land at the minimum price ?-I can counteract that evidence; I am employing men now to work for me at £1 per day.

157. Do you think a minimum price of £1 an acre is so much as to prevent a person here from buying land ?-People sometimes when they have made money, because they cannot buy land, go and buy in a hole and expend their money, and when there is land to be sold they have no opportunity to buy land.

158. Would not that system of leasing reduce very much the position of the people, so that instead of being a free and independent yeomanry, as they ought to be, they would be in a state of serfdom ?-The leasing system is adopted in South Australia, and I think the community there are as independent as anywhere.

159. The Government does not lease land in South Australia ?-No; there they lease not from the Government but from private parties. I only put it, that if a private individual can afford to lease land and make it pay, whether it would not pay the Government to do so.

160. Supposing that by the plan which you propose, in a very short time all the land round Ballaarat, and within two or three miles of it, were taken up by the diggers, would it not be a great hardship on those who came to dig to find they could not get any land here, and that those who happened to be here first had picked it all up in six months ?-1 do not think it would be a hardship.

161. They would have to buy out those parties ?-You might say the same in Adelaide. There for seventy miles out the whole land is bought up.

162. Do you believe that persons are leaving this Colony at the present time because of the want of facility for acquiring land ?-I do; and I think it is only on account of the auction system of getting it.

163. Supposing a dozen men are all wanting a piece of land, is not it fair they should all have a chance of buying it ?-I think there is plenty of land for all, and the more land there was bought the more would be cultivated.




164. Then if the Government brought more land into the market, and had more frequent auction sales, would not that meet the difficulty ?-That would meet the difficulty if the auction system is not done away with, but I think it is an unnecessary thing, and· forces people to give more for land than what they can realise from it.

165. What is your opinion with respect to the gold mining license fee ?-I think the digger's license fee should be totally abolished.

166. It has been suggested that all diggers who occupied pieces of land should be registered, and should pay a small fee for registering, and hold a paper to shew they were registered; should you agree with that ?-I think, from my own opinion and the general views expressed to me in conversation with people on the diggings, that a tax upon the gold would meet all that is wanted, so that the lucky digger should pay ; I should be very glad, if I had 100 ozs. of gold to-morrow, to pay 2s. 6d. or 3s. an ounce. 1 think that would answer better, because a poor man would have to register as well as a rich man.

167. Rut supposing the registration fee was a very small amount, say 5s., or even Is. ; it is not so much to raise revenue as to have a control over the diggings, and to know who were there, and when a man sets up a claim, to know he had a right to do so?-I think even if a tax were put on gold, that registration would have a very good effect, if it was a small amount of money only.

168. Do you think it advisable, in the event of disputed claims, which are constantly arising amongst many of the miners, that for the particular dispute a fee should be charged as a source of revenue in order to maintain the establishment, but that the officers themselves should not receive it, and it should go into the general revenue ?-I think that would have a good effect, and meet the wishes of the people. There are a great number of people who bring false complaints, and they would be very cautious in doing that if they had to pay for it.

169. Do you think it should be a fee regulated according to the value of the claim, or that there should be a fixed fee for going to adjust a dispute ?-That is where the difficulty lies. It may be necessary for me to call upon the Commissioner to settle a dispute and the claim may not be worth twopence, and in another case there may be thousands of pounds lying in the bottom of the hole. I think where claims are shepherded the fee ought to be very small indeed in case of a decision, because otherwise rather than go to the Commissioner they would settle it by fighting; there are a great number that do already fight about it when they do not have to pay anything for it.

170. Do you think, on the whole, it would be better to have a nominal sum to apply to all cases of disputes, or do you think the fee should go with the decision ?-I think it would be best not to have any fee at all, but that every man who wished to register a claim and keep that claim, should pay a fee upon the registration, and nothing for the settlement of a dispute, because in such cases a man might be called upon to pay for the settlement of a dispute where the claim would not be worth the money spent.

171. "upon the ground of equality, is it not fair that those who have disputes should contribute to the expense of their disputes, which otherwise they must go to the expense of a civil action to settle ?-In that way I think the diggers would be perfectly satisfied with it: the only question is, whether they would not sooner fight about it than go to the expense. Instead of registering a claim I think it would be better that a person coming on the diggings, and intending to be a miner, should go and register himself as such, and that he should be protected as such under that registration fee.

172. Then when he took possession of a particular claim and had a dispute, should he then pay another fee in addition to his registration of his right as a miner? -I imagine no digger would think but that that was fair.

173. Do you think it would be better that the party coming to make a dispute should pay the fee beforehand, to be returned if it were settled in his favor, or that the decision should carry the expense with it ?-I think the complainant ought to pay the fee required, and the person in default should bear the expense of both fees. ·

174. Supposing that the license fee were abolished, do you think it would work well that a small registration fee should be paid by each miner before he commenced operations ?-Yes; and it should be understood that every man who paid this fee should be entitled to the protection of the Crown in the protection of his claim and in the settlement of any matter in dispute.

175. Would it be necessary for a man to register before he began his work?-Yes.

176. Would you consider that a man unless registered should have no claim upon the Gold Field at all ?-Yes.

177. Would it be necessary to impose any penalty for non-registration ?-No; a man who was not registered could sustain no claim to any piece of land.

178. What is your reason for objecting to the license fee ?-On account of the disagreeable operation of it. Many men come on to the diggings and spend their all, when they become poor men, and are obliged to go and work where they can get it, and they are still obliged to pay a license fee, and if they have not the money to pay it, they are hunted and have to run into any hole and corner to get out of the way of the policemen, or else they are taken up to the Camp like felons. I think it is a hard case where men are working on the Gold Fields, or perhaps prospecting and endeavouring to find work, that they should be · taken up to the Camp like felons because they have not the money to pay the license fee.

179. Is there any difference in principle between a man taking out a licence for and a man going to buy land at so much per acre at a public auction ; is there any difference in principle between paying for the use of land and buying it ?-When a policeman comes after you for your license, if you happen to have forgotten it, and left it in your tent, you will be packed off to the Camp, and it is a very disagreeable affair.

180. Would you not be allowed to go and get your license under those circumstances? Sometimes.

181. That would be an objection to the mode of collecting it, not to the principle? I think the principle is connected with the mode there.

182. "Upon what terms would you wish leases of the auriferous soil here to be given.  Speaking of your own claim, on what terms would you wish to have it ?-I should wish to have it on the same terms as at present, to have the Government protection on the terms of a registration ticket ; but in the deep sinkings I think more ground should be allowed, and more especially for those that are prospecting.

183. Do you approve of the principle of a fee being charged by the Government to entitle you to the property in any particular sinking throughout the Gold Fields ?-Yes, under a similar system to the license.

184. What fee would you suppose a fair consideration for twelve months to entitle a man to dig in any part of the Gold Field, confining it to one Gold Field alone, such as Ballaarat, keeping in view also the imposition of an export duty on gold ?-I do not think any man could complain of two guineas as a fee for twelve months.

185. Would you make it transferable, not to another person, but to another Gold Field ?-No; I am simply confining the question to this Gold Field.

186. You say the present mode of ascertaining whether men are licensed is objectionable. Supposing no mode is taken to ascertain whether the miners are duly provided with registration tickets, do you think they will generally take them out ?-I think they will to protect themselves.

187. You think a man should have no right to any piece of ground unless he had a registration ticket?-Yes ; I think that would induce every one to take out a ticket.

188. Do you think it would be objectionable that a man should transfer his right to any one else, that, supposing he wanted to leave Ballaarat and go to Bendigo, he should sell his ticket ?-I think that would have a bad effect, because the name would have to be altered. I think it would be objectionable to make it transferable.

189. Have you considered the subject of leasing auriferous lands in small portions for a limited time, for the purpose of working them by machinery?-Yes; and I have always had a strong objection to see anything of the kind; for I have seen that people, when they have been unlucky in the deep sinking, have gone back upon the old sinkings, and worked a little and got a little, and by that means recruited themselves, and came back again to the deep sinking.

190. And you suppose that if this leasing system were adopted, it would restrict their choice of land ?-It would take the land away from the poorer part of the diggers, who fall back upon those old diggings in case of emergency.

191. Do not you think it is desirable to lease land, and introduce machinery, in order to make more of the resources of the Colony ?-Machinery is used now; for instance, men come up and get a share or half a share in a claim to pump the water out by an engine.

192. Do you think private effort is likely to be successful in the introduction of machinery ? -Yes; I think they will introduce machinery in that way, and it will pay the digger and pay the speculator equally as well as if the land were leased, and will have a better effect.

193. Do you think they would be able to introduce machinery on any large scale if they merely have a small piece of ground ?-At the Red Hill, where they are working now with machinery, I think six men get sixty feet by twenty-four feet; each man gets a double allowance, and that seems to have a good effect.

194. Do you think so long as it was confined to the co-operative principle among the miners themselves, it would be highly advantageous to encourage such parties, merely giving them a larger amount of claim ? -Yes ; I think they would work together, and there would be more energy displayed than by any company that could be formed.

195. Do you think it would tend to cut wages down if companies came to work the ground ?-I think they would do themselves no good, and do the diggers no good; they must interfere with the diggers if they go on the old sinkings.

196. Would that apply to quartz veins ?-Quartz veins are worked by private enterprise as well as they are by machinery. If any party had a crushing machine and came out here, he could get a party of diggers to join him,

197. Supposing the miners themselves formed companies for the introduction of  Mr. W. Bradshaw,
machinery, would you object to their having leases given them ?-They would go and take the best land, and perhaps that would be the very land the poor man might fall back upon.

198. Could not you make use of the company for the purpose of prospecting ?-I think more prospecting would be done by the diggers.

l99. Have you any other suggestion to offer to the Commissioners ?-I think proper police officers should be appointed to patrol each Gold Field, in the same way as they patrol in Melbourne or Geelong.

200. Has there been any patrol upon the Gold Fields ?-No; I can speak of the need of it; for, from the hole where I am at work, I saw the other day a woman and three or four men come along in the open daylight, and I saw a man go in and take a bag of flour out of a store. We were surprised, and did not know whether the men were actually belonging to the store or not. One of my mates went round and told the storekeeper, and afterwards the man went in and got another case, but when the storekeeper came out, they put the bag down a hole and made away.

201. Are those cases where the police are required frequent ?-They have been lately more frequent. A policeman is now stationed on the road, on account of its being so notorious now. I think a great deal of horse stealing would be saved by all horses being registered ; there should be a registration office in every town and district, so that information could be given as soon as a horse was lost. I would have every horse registered, and a fee of £2, say, for registering; and I think an auctioneer should not be entitled to sell a horse unless it was registered.

202. Would you extend that registration to bullocks and other animals ?-That would be a matter of consideration ; I did not take it in, because the value of bullocks is not so great.

203. Have you considered the question of the enfranchisement of the diggers ?-Yes.

204. Are you aware that it is not in the power of the Government or Legislature of this Colony to enfranchise the diggers, according to the present state of the law ?-I am aware of that. '

205. And that all that can be done is to give the franchise to the towns at the different diggings ?-Yes. • .
206. Would that give representation to such an extent as would be better than the present system of non-representation, for a year or so, until the New Constitution came into force ? -Yes, I think so. I for one should have a vote at once.

207. Do you think that would be an improvement upon the present non-representation?- Yes, I think it would, and I see it is the only improvement that can be brought forward.

208. How many voters might there be in Ballaarat, holders of land, 500 ?-I think there might be.

209. Have there been 1000 allotments sold here ?-No, I think not; but all the land that has been sold has been cut up, some of it into twenty pieces, some of it into fifty.

210. How far out is the land sold from the township ?-About nine or ten miles now.

211. Do you think the members returned from that district would represent as well as could be the wishes and wants of the Ballaarat diggers ?-They would, as well as could be for the present, because most of the people located on the land have been diggers, or are diggers at the present time.

212. Are there many of the digging population that have purchased land in the neighbourhood ?-There are hundreds of diggers who have purchased land.

213. What in your opinion ought to be the number of members returned for the Electoral District of Ballaarat ?-I think at the least there might be two. I would wish to mention the question of a Government grant on the Gold Fields for an hospital, to be erected with similar support as the Melbourne Hospital. ·

214. With regard to charitable institutions, would the mining population do the same as in other parts of the country, where the rule is, that the population should raise a certain amount, and the Government should give a sum equal to double that amount?-Yes, I think they would do that.

215. Have you any other observations you wish to make ?-I think that all parties prospecting for gold and finding it, should certainly derive a much greater benefit than they at present do.

216. What benefit do you allude to ?-I think that men ought to have an extra claim allowed them.

217. How would you distinguish between prospecting and working on an established Gold Field ?-I would distinguish thus, that any men after going a certain depth, if they came upon gold and no other parties were next them, they should be entitled to an extra claim.

218. How would you be able to distinguish between a prospecting Gold Field and a Gold Field where people were  at work in large numbert1? -Going the depth is the prospecting. I think parties sinking so deep, say over 120 feet, should be allowed a double chance in each claim ; the difficulty is, we do not know the depth of the hole till we sink it. Then in the mean time people in the same line with you would be prevented from commencing until they knew what your depth was ?-I think if it were allowed that three claims should be worked out of one shaft that would answer the purpose.
220. Would it not meet your view to have a general law for the regulation of the Gold Fields, and let the local authorities make such special regulations as might be necessary for each particular Gold Field, subject to the approval of the Governor and Executive Council ?-I think that would meet the case.

221. Has the operation of the partnership clause in the Mining Act given satisfaction, the clause empowering Commissioners to settle disputes in view, instead of the parties being compelled to bring civil actions ?-The only dissatisfaction I have heard expressed has been with Mr. Johnstone, but I think not so much from any want of good meaning as from want of firmness of character.

222. Have you any complaint to make with regard to the administration of the law on the Gold Fields?-No complaint further than I thought it was very injudicious for the police to come out the day after the public meeting. The people appeared to me to be all generally well-disposed, and the well-disposed part of the people would all have taken their licenses out.

223. When was the meeting ?-On the Wednesday, and on the Thursday the police came down to the Flat and challenged the people; it was a sort of intimidation, and the people were very much insulted.

224. Have you any complaint to bring against any individual connected with the Government ?-No.


Ballarat in 1870, the life of a miner and the family was very hard.






Son William Burroughs Bradshaw born 1826 Sutton and baptised in 1836 in Sutton.

Ballarat Courier (Vic. : 1869 - 1882; 1914 - 1918), Saturday 29 May 1915, page 10

OBITUARY Another old pioneer, Mr William B. Bradshaw, passed away at the residence of his niece (Mrs Mathews, 151 Humpfrey street north, on Wednesday evening in his 89th year. Deceased, who was highly respected, was a member of the Old Colonists' Association. He was born in Cambridgeshire, England, in 1826, and when 11 years of age sailed with his parents to Australia in the ship Catherine-Stewart Forbes. A few days before he left London in 1837, he watched the ceremony of the Proclamation of the accession of the late Queen Victoria from Tower Hill. After a three month's voyage the family landed in Adelaide, and in the following year Mr Bradshaw's father established one of the first bakery businesses in Adelaide. At the age of 23 years deceased married.
After having conducted a bakery business at Morphetville for some time Mr Bradshaw relinquished the business, preferring the at tractions and promises of enrichment on the goldfields in Victoria in 1851. He followed up the numerous gold rushes with varying success, and was among the earliest goldseekers at Castlemaine, Maryborough and Ballarat. he was at Ballarat at the time of the Eureka Stockade, and was one of the first justices of the peace appointed for the colony.

The interest he took in charitable movements was recognised by his appointment as a deputation to Melbourne to submit the plans of a proposed hospital at Ballarat. The plans ware accepted, and the foundation stone of the existing Ballarat Hospital was laid. In recognition of his services Mr Bradshaw was appointed the life-governor of the institution. In later years Mr Bradshaw was appointed general manager of the Victory Tin Mines at Euriowie. Subsequently he devoted his energies to the land, and for years persevered in rural pursuits at Wentworth and at other points along the Darling.

He closely studied the land settlement question, and was a staunch advocate of the continuation lease system, and decried the system adopted by the Government of leasing land with the right to purchase. He maintained that no land should be sold, but that it should be leased by the Government to those who would convert it to the best use. If such a system were adopted, Mr Bradshaw contended there be little land of any value lying idle in the Commonwealth.

Mr Bradshaw's family, four sons and five daughters are married and scattered in different States. The funeral, which was strictly private, took place yesterday from the residence of his niece, Mrs Eyvell, "Netherlands." Victoria street, his remains being interred at the Old Cemetery. The Rev. R. Bayles officiated at the house and grave. The pall-bearers were Messrs Wm Bradshaw (son) J. Bray, F. Williams, T. Datson, J. V. Glover and T. B. Glarover. The funeral arrangements were in the hands of Messrs Jordan and Tippett (F. W. Barnes and Son). 


Edwin Buller Bradshaw born 1831 in Sutton Cambridgeshire, married Jane Hill Vincent in 1857
He also was baptised in 1836      
                                                
He died in 1901 in Victoria. The remains of the late Mr Edward Buller Bradshaw were interred on Friday in the Buninyong Cemetery. The body was removed to the Masonic Hall, where the usual service was held. The deceased was one of the oldest trustees of the Buninyong Cemetery. The coffin-bearers were Messrs Wor. Br Linekar, W.M. of the Ballarat Lodge; Wor. Br Dempster, W. M. of the Sebastopal Lodge; Wor. Br Dickenson, P.M. of the Buninyong Lodge; and Br T. Renfield. The pall-bearers were Brs Meredith, Eason, Scott, Burrow. Maddern, Laidlaw, Stoneman, and Mathes. 

The Rev. J. A. Forrest officiated at the house, and Rev. J. H. Hadley at. the grave. The Masonic service was read by Br R. Thompson, W. M. assisted by Br J. C. Kelsall, chaplain. Mr Charles Morris carried out the mortuary arrangements.


In 1881 William and Marion were back in England and living in their daughter's house.









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